Riveters African American Soldiers 1 African American Officers pilots in dress uniforms gas masks The pilots Mule Rearing doughboys with mules

World War I

  • Americans Underground: Secret City of World War I

    Click here for video clips and current showtimes.

    An amazing discovery has been made beneath a farm field in Northern France: a vast underground city where World War I soldiers, on both sides of the conflict, took refuge a century ago. Even more remarkable, it is one of hundreds of buried havens set up close to a 45-mile stretch of the Western Front. Follow American photographer Jeff Gusky and a team of historians as they document one of these long forgotten shelters, and witness their attempts to connect the names of the American soldiers etched into the limestone walls to their living descendants.

    Maine soldiers from the 103rd Infantry Regiment in the 26th "Yankee" Division are featured in this film. It was made with assistance from Maine historian Jonathan Bratten, the Maine Army National Guard, Passamaquoddy historian Donald Soctomah, the Maine Bureau of Veterans Services, and the Maine Military Historical Society.

  • It Aimed to Make the World 'Safe for Democracy:' World War I and Its Aftermath

    February 7, 2017

    "The world must be made safe for democracy."  With those words, President Woodrow Wilson committed Maine, and the rest of the country, to fight in World War I.  It was April 2, 1917.   To mark the coming centennial, the Maine Historical Society opens a new exhibit in Portland today. To read the full article from Maine Public's interview with curator Jamie Rice, click here.

  • Americans Underground, Secret City of WWI


    A documentary airing on the Smithsonian Channel on an “underground city” found beneath a French wheat field that served as refuge for American soldiers during World War I.  They carved names and inscriptions and artwork in the limestone walls of the caves.  The documentary includes an interview with Dr. John Morrow, history professor at the University of Georgia and a member of the Georgia World War I Centennial Commission.  Atlantan Jonathan Wickham, who has collaborated with the GWWICC on potential video projects, is a co-producer.  Initially scheduled air times on the Smithsonian Channel are:

    Monday, March 13, 8 p.m.
    Friday, March 17, 10 p.m.
    Saturday, March 18, 1 a.m.
    Sunday, March 19, 1 p.m.

    Check the Smithsonian Channel schedule guide for potential future airings.

    Details at http://www.smithsonianchannel.com/shows/americans-underground-secret-city-of-wwi/0/3437460


  • Pennsylvania in the First World Warpopy Keystone


    Descendants and Friends of the 314th - remembrance oganization dedicated to honoring and preserving the story of their fathers, grandfathers, and family members in the First World War.  The 314th Infantry was a regiment of the 79th Division, American Expeditionary Forces.

    Home Before the Leaves Fall- Great War web site created by organizations and individuals in the Mid-Atlantic region.

    GREATER PHILADELPHIA in the GREAT WAR- online database of the thousands of Philadelphia-area residents who served in the First World War.

    Roads to the Great War: Penn State Goes to War: How an American College Supported the War Effort - how Penn State supported the war

    Pittsburgh World War I History - A Short History of Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania Soldiers in World War I (1917-1919) - a special feature on the contributions of Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania to the Great War carried at the time in the Pittsburgh Press is re-created here.

    World War I Memorial Inventory Project - A project to mark the war's centennial by assembling a comprehensive online inventory of World War I memorials and monuments in the United States.  Pennsylvania has WW1 memorials that still need to be documented.

    313th Machine Gun Battalion - information about men of the 313th Machine Gun Battalion, 80th Division, who served in World War I by Andrew Capets.

    The State Museum of Pennsylvania
    Pennsylvania at War
    Pennsylvania at War - Facebook

    Click here for Pennsylvanians who died serving in the British armed forces


    Western Front Association  East Coast - Spring 2018 Symposium
    Western Front Association - East Coast Branch
    presents:WFA LOGO2
    The Spring 2018 World War I History Symposium
    Spangler Hall (St. Paul’s Evangelical Lutheran Church)
    1609 Kurtz Avenue, Lutherville, MD 21093
    Date Saturday, June 9, 2018
    Sign-in, meet and greet, and refreshments begin at 8:30am with opening remarks at 9:30am.
    Mail in registration deadline: Tuesday, June 5, 2018
    Download Spring 2018 Event Flyer and Registration Form

    Pennsylvania 2017 World War One History Symposium
    at the United States Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle, PA - 2017 MAY 13
    2017 Spring Symposium - USAHEC
    ee the 2017 Symposium videos on our YouTube Channel


    Philadelphia in the World War 1914-1919, Philadelphia War History Committee, 1922 - compiled by the committee as a tribute to Philadelphia's contribution to the U.S. war effort.  Permanent record of the wartime activities that took place in Philadelphia during WW1.

    Pittsburgh in World War I:  Arsenal of the Allies, Elizabeth Williams, 2013 - written by a Pittsburgh native, this narrative recounts the Pittsburgh area's contribution to the war effort.

    Philadelphia: The World War I Years, Peter John Williams, 2013 - Pete Williams, a lifelong resident of Philadelphia tells the story of the changes that swept through the city during WW1.

    Spirit of Philadelphia: A 100th Anniversary of WWI Story, G. J. House, 2017 - A story of honor and resilience spanning Pennsylvania & Europe. Perhaps the only, historical fiction for the 100th Anniversary of the U.S. in WWI. A window into America’s earlier culture, and vivid characters, with a youth wanting employment. There's love and heritage, and work at the world’s largest ship building site -- Hog Island (now Phila. Int. Airport).

    Toward the Flame:  A Memoir of World War 1, Hervey Allen, New York, 1926 - First hand account written by a Pittsburgh native and Lieutenant in the 28th Division.  Includes the flame-thrower attack on his company in August, 1918 at Fismette while under French command.

    To Conquer Hell:  The Meuse-Argonne, 1918 The Epic Battle That Ended the First World War, Edward G. Lengel, New York, 2008 -  A most readable summary of American involvement in WW1 focusing on America's largest and costliest battle, the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Sep.-Nov., 1918.  Draws in part on the diaries and memoirs of American soldiers who fought in WW1, and includes the stories of all three Pennsylvania divisions, the 28th, 79th and 80th, in the Meuse-Argonne, along with the 92nd and 93rd Divisions in which African-Americans  from Pennsylvania served.  One of the best.

    Betrayal at Little Gibraltar, William Walker, New York, 2016 - A story of disobeyed orders, careless handling by the A.E.F general staff of plans for taking Montfaucon, that led to a debacle at the very beginning of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive that cost untold American lives, and it's final cover-up by General Pershing himself.

    With Their Bare Hands: General Pershing, the 79th Division and the Battle for Montfaucon, Gene Fax, New York, 2017 - How the 79th Division was given the task of taking the critical high ground of Montfaucon on the first day of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, a task for which the inexperienced unit was unfit.  This mismanagement of the initial attack by the U.S. high command led to the stalling of the entire offensive.

    28th Division: Summary of Operations in the World War (PDF), American Battle Monuments Commission, 1944 - front-line infantry historical study, including casualty and strength tables, compiled by ABMC.

    79th Division: Summary of Operations in the World War (PDF), American Battle Monuments Commission, 1944 - front-line infantry historical study, including casualty and strength tables, compiled by ABMC.

    80th Division: Summary of Operations in the World War, American Battle Monuments Commission, 1944 - front-line infantry historical study, including casualty and strength tables, compiled by ABMC.

    92nd Division: Summary of Operations in the World War, American Battle Monuments Commission, 1944 - front-line infantry historical study, including casualty and strength tables, compiled by ABMC.

    93rd Division: Summary of Operations in the World War, American Battle Monuments Commission, 1944 - front-line infantry historical study, including casualty and strength tables, compiled by ABMC.

     First World War in General

    The Guns of August (1962) & The Proud Tower (1966) - Barbara W. Tuchman, in single volume by Library of America (2012), Edited by Margaret MacMillan, includes the essay "How We Entered World War I".  The Guns of August won a Pulitzer Prize and covers the first month of the war.  The Proud Tower covers the 25 year period leading up to the First World War.  Some of the finest writing about The First World War.

    Over Here: The First World War and American Society (1980), David M. Kennedy.  Pulitzer prize winning author.  Covers the events in the United States during the nineteen months of American belligerency.  Uses the occasion of the war as a window into early twentieth century American Society.  The First World War truly marks the genesis of modern American society.

    The Great War (BBC 1964) Part 01 of 26 - On The Idle Hill Of Summer - 26 part video series produced by the BBC for the 50th anniversary of the First World War.  First Broadcast: Saturday 30th May 1964.  Veterans of the Great War were still living and numerous interviews with them are included.  An excellent telling of the story of WW 1 from beginning to end.  The page for each episode has a link to the next episode.

    The Great War Channel on YouTube - a new video comes out each Thursday.  Created by Indy Neidell, it covers the war as it unfolded week by week.


    Artifacts, Articles, & Local History

    Allentown Fairgrounds - Mobilization and Training Camp for Medical Department Units, Camp Crane, Allentown, PA
    Camp Crane was established in May, 1917, primarily to afford a mobilization place for recruits for the United States Army Ambulance Service, the recruiting center for which was located in Philadelphia; later it was used for the mobilization of Medical Department units of all kinds.  Details about Camp Crane at the Allentown Fairgrounds.

    Eddystone Munitions Company
    Kurt Sellers
    Major, U.S. Army (retired)

    Eddystone Model 1917 Rifle
    Kurt Sellers
    Major, U.S. Army (retired)

    Eddystone Model 1917 Rifle Bibliography
    Kurt Sellers
    Major, U.S. Army (retired)

    Eddystone Rifle Plant - History of the Last Remaining Building
    Kurt Sellers
    Major, U.S. Army (retired)

    The Eddystone Story
    by Walter J. Kuleck, Ph.D.

    Articles by Chris Gibbons related to the First World War published in The Philadelphia Inquirer

    A Philadelphia Chaplain’s Heroic World War 1 Acts - published January 1, 2017

    Beat the Drums Slowly - published May 26, 2013

    In Search of Roman's 'Lost Boys' of World War 1 - published May 27, 2012

    Love and Loss on the Home Front - published May 9, 2016

    Philadelphian Gave His Life as Nation Found Its Soul - published May 25, 2014

    Revelations in Quest for Roman Alum in World War I - published September 11, 2015

    The Doughboys of St. Columba’s - published April 6, 2017

    Last of the Doughboys - Published in the Philadelphia Daily News, May 25, 2007

    Great War-related local history articles in The Luminary, the weekly newspaper that serves the Muncy, Montgomery and Hughesville area in eastern Lycoming County.

    The working women of World War I

    WWI private wounded in France

    Muncy's American Legion bears name of WWI aviator

    Razor or bullet, both became a close shave

    Lauding local Legion Post's First Commander Raymond Lee Hill - May 15, 2017

    100 Years Later: The World War I Army Field Diary of Lancaster Ophthalmologist Dr. Harry Culbertson Fulton by Peter C.Wever, M.D., Ph.D. Clinical Microbiologist, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ’s-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands in the Journal of Lancaster General Hospital - Spring 2018 - Vol. 13, No. 1 -read the article

    Black Americans - Montgomery County - The outbreak of World War One caused a dwindling work force and a diminished flow of immigrants from Europe who had previously been hired as laborers.  At the same time wartime industrial expansion led to the recruitment of black workers, particularly in the steel industry.  The Alan Wood Steel Company of Conshohoken recruited black workers from as far away as Saluda County, South Carolina, and erected a tent camp for laborers until the new workers could find permanent housing.  Blacks held mostly undesireable jobs until the Second World War when further labor shortages compelled the company to offer blacks skilled jobs and to discontinue discriminatory promotion practices.   Blacks were also drafted separately into a segregated army.
    Black draftees Airy and Dekalb Sts AUG 1 1918

    Franklin County Red Cross Nurses Who Lost Their Lives During the First World War - Listed among the eighty-six names on the Franklin County War memorial in Chambersburg, PA are those of six Red Cross nurses who lost their lives during the World War.  By Suellen Burkey, used by permission of the Franklin County Historical Society.


    Katherine Patterson IrwinNurse Katherine Patterson Irwin

    Liberty War Scrap Book compiled in three volumes by Emily Price Flynn, Easton, PA.  The book was a  gift from her mother December 25, 1917.  From the collection of Charles A. Miller.

    DSC 0132

    DSC 0133

    scrap books

    Wissahickon Valley Historical Society displays

    WVHS IMG 0525a

    WVHS uniform DSC 0337
    Uniforms donated to WVHS by the Robert Detweiler family

    WVHS WW1 artifacts

    WVHS Stars and Stripes DSC 0338
    WVHS Stars and Stripes DSC 0339
    WVHS Stars and Stripes DSC 0340


    Stories of Pennsylvania Soldiers

    Harry Edwin Roach - Distinguished Service Cross
    Holding the rank of Wagoner, Harry Edwin Roach was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, after risking his own life while evacuating wounded from Fismes and Fismette while under fire from German artillery, gas, and machine guns on August 10th and 11th, 1918.  Harry was an ambulance driver and five ambulances carrying wounded got through safely, one of which he drove.

    Distinguished Service Cross Citation:
    Wagoner, U.S. Army
    110th Ambulance Company, 103d Sanitary Train, 28th Division, A.E.F.
    Date of Action: August 10 - 11, 1918
    The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Harry E. Roach, Wagoner, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action near Fismes, France, August 10 - 11, 1918. Because of the destruction from shell fire of ten of the 13 ambulances of his company, Wagoner Roach worked for 48 hours driving through a shell-swept and gas-infested area, thereby making possible the evacuation of the wounded.
    General Orders No. 15, W.D., 1919
    Home Town: Philadelphia, PA

    Harry Edwin Roach DSC Liberty Medal Harry Edwin Roach with Distinguished Service Cross and Liberty Medal

    Harry Edwin Roach Ambulance
    Driving ambulance

    Harry Edwin Roach in uniform
    In Uniform

    Harry Edwin Roach in uniform2
    Standing at Attention

    Bridge across the Vesle River at Fismes Fismette 2015
    Bridge Across the Vesle River at Fisme and Fismette 2015

    Private Thomas McHale - Distinguished Service Cross
    Submitted by his Great Nephew Dan Hilferty
    He received the award in 1929 at a ceremony at the John Wanamaker store in center city Philadelphia.  He never told anyone he was receiving the medal.  His sister-in-law asked him why he was dressed up on a weekday, he replied that the Army wanted to give him a medal.  His sister-in-law told him that she was going to go with him.  She was the only relative to see him get the award.

    Distinguished Service Cross_Citation:
    Private, U.S. Army
    Company D, 110th Infantry Regiment, 28th Division, A.E.F.
    Date of Action: July 30, 1918
    The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Thomas J. McHale,Private, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action at the Bois-de-Grimpettes, near Sergy, France, July 30, 1918. When the attack on the Bois-de- Grimpettes was held up by heavy enemy machine-gun and artillery fire, Private McHale volunteered to locate the enemy machine-gun nests.  After locating the enemy's positions he returned and with a platoon charged and cleared the nests, killing many of the crew, and successfully led the platoon to the outer edge of the woods where it was found that the enemy was preparing for a counterattack.  Private McHale returned and guided his company to the position occupied by the platoon where it later repulsed the enemy counterattack.  The courage, judgment, and leadership displayed by Private McHale were a great inspiration to the other members of the command.
    General Orders No. No. 16, W.D., 1929
    Home Town: Philadelphia, PA

    Pvt. Thomas McHale

    Lt. Morrell SmithLt. Morrell Smith

    The Story of 2nd Lietenant Morell Smith native of Newtown, Pennsylvania, Company 'C', 310th Infantry Regiment, 78th Infantry Division, American Expeditionary Forces, killed in action during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, 18 October, 1918.  His remains were discovered and identified mid-1924.  By Mike Donovan and Jon Guy.

    Sgt. Paul E. Fleisher passed away from pneumonia in Embarkation Hospital, Philadelphia upon return from France.         Born Oct.12, 1892, Newport, Pennsylvania.  Died Jan 23, 1919

    Sgt. Paul E. Fleisher pictures

    Sgt. Paul Fleisher

    Sgt. Paul E. Fleisher - letter home

    Sgt. Paul E. Fleisher - overseas

    Sgt. Paul E. Fleisher - overseas

    Sgt. Paul E. Fleisher - overseas

    Sgt. Paul E. Fleisher - with his unit

    Private James Francis Curry, 2659635, Altoona, Blair County, Pennsylvania.  Inducted at Akron, Ohio, 27 May 1918. Infantry training at Camp Gordon, Georgia, May 1918 - July 1918.  Served overseas with the AEF, U.S. 42nd 'Rainbow' Division, 165th Infantry Regiment, Company 'L'.  Engagements: St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Advance on Sedan, July 1918 - April 1919. 2nd Co., 1st. Tr. Btn., 158th Depot Brigade, May 1919. Honorably discharged at Camp Sherman, Ohio, 13 May 1919.  Submitted by Mary Curry Jones.

    JFCurry PVT WWI
    Private James Francis Curry

    Private James Francis Curry - Veteran's Compensation Application

    Richard J. Cory, USMC - Strafford, PA

    Richarrd J Cory USMC

    1st Lt. Albert Clinton Wunderlich, Company L, 3rd Battalion, 79th Division -
    killed 28 SEP 1918
    Read Full Story by Matt Schultz, American Legion Post 65, Lansdowne, PA


    Edward Morris Walker

    Edward Morris Walker

    Edward Morris Walker Record of Burial PlaceEdward Morris Walker Record of Place of Burial - Department of Military Affairs

    memorial marker Edward Morris Walker2Edward Morris Walker Memorial Marker

    LT Edward A. Hadeen
    Lt Edward A Hadeen
    Lt Edward A Hadeen2

    2nd Lt. Alfred Langstaff Test
    - volunteered to serve in The First British Ambulance Unit for Italy at the age of seventeen.  Because of his youth, his father had to sign with his approval of the application.  Upon arrival in England, Alfred Test was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the British Army, "without any qualifications or training".  He served in the Italian theater of operations driving an ambulance and carrying wounded soldiers from October, 1917 until his discharge in January, 2019.  

    2nd Lt. Test recorded his experiences in a diary in which he states that on Nov. 12, 1918, the day after the armistice, he and a fellow British Red Cross volunteer drove their ambulance east from the Piave River area to Trieste, where they found and proceeded to care for over 100,000 Italian prisoners of war who were without food or medical care.

    For heroism under fire, 2LT Test was awarded the Italian War Merit Cross, and received two blue chevrons from the British Red Cross Society.
    DSC 2162a2nd Lieutenant Alfred Langstaff Test in British Army uniform

    DSC 2162bItalian War Merit Cross awarded to 2LT Alfred Langstaff Test

    DSC 2156
    Authorization - British Red Cross service chevrons for Alfred Langstaff Test

    Information was supplied by Lawrence Bailey for William F. Taylor Jr., Della Taylor, Daniel Adams Bailey, Maj Gen Charles Justin Bailey, Alexander C. Bailey, Harry R. Bailey, and Morris Bernard Colyer.

    William F. Taylor Jr. - (1893 - 1918)  Died of Wounds - Lived in Harris Twp, Centre County, died on October 5, 1918 in a base hospital in France of wounds received in action.  It is supposed by his descendants that he was wounded in the drive in the Meuse-Argonne sector.  He was 23 years old, having served in CO H 314th INF, 79th Division, American Expeditionary Forces.

    Della Taylor, William's mother wore a Gold Star Mother's ribbon
    Gold Star Ribbon

    Daniel Adams Bailey - Served with the he 28th Infantry Division,  Lived in Pikes Township, Clearfield County, and was a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate, from the 34th district, serving from 1963 to 1970.
    Daniel Adams Bailey

    Daniel Adams Bailey

    Maj Gen Charles Justin Bailey -  lived inTamaqua, Schuylkill County. He was the commander of the 81st Division of the US Army in WW I in France from 1918 to 1919.  He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1880 and in the same year was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 1st Artillery Regiment. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, the Order of Leopold (Belgium), the Croix de Guerre with palm, and was an officer of the Legion of Honor.
    Charles Justin Bailey
    Maj Gen Charles Justin Bailey

    Alexander C. Bailey, Philipsburg, PA, served with the 305th Brig. Tank Corps.

    Harry R. Bailey - served as a Pvt., Ordnance Dept. World War I

    Morris Benard Colyer - Linden Hall, Centre County, served with the Wagoner Supply Co. of the 33rd Infantry [Division?]

    Raymond Birmingham McCormick - was an 18 yr old student at Villanova, he joined the Student Army Training Corps. Almost immediately contracted the 1918 influenza and ended up in St Joe's Hospital. He said the hardest time was late at night when he could hear the gurneys going down the hall to the elevator taking the dead to the morgue.
    Got his honorable discharge, went out to Gettysburg area to the Carlisle Barracks, the War College, to teach horsemanship to the students.
    Raymond Birmingham McCormick
    Raymond Birmingham McCormick

    Raymond Birmingham McCormick draft 1

    Raymond Birmingham McCormick draft 2
    Raymond Birmingham McCormick draft registration card

    Raymond Birmingham McCormick 2

    Raymond Birmingham McCormick 5
    Raymond Birmingham McCormick at right

    Victory Parade and Arch, West Chester, PA
    Victory Arch West Chester PA

    Victory Parade and Arch West Chester PA 10

    Victory Parade West Chester PA 1

    Victory Parade West Chester PA 2

    Victory Parade West Chester PA 7

    Victory Parade West Chester PA 8

    Victory Parade West Chester PA 9
    Victory Parade, West Chester, PA

    Charles Rosario Spano in the 2nd Cavalry Regiment, Troop Bsubmitted by his Granddaughter Diana Spano

    Insert & upload images/pdf/ppt
    Charles Rosario Spano Passport with picture - 15 JUN 1920

    Charles Rosario Spano, U.S. Army,
    Dates of service: June 13, 1916 to June 4, 1920

    With gratitude and in honor of my paternal grandfather, Charles Rosario Spano,  I am posting the following details of his active duty service during World War l.  The information is collected from original documents and copies in my possession, and from memories of conversation with my father, Vincent Rosario Spano (deceased), son of Charles, who also served in the US Army during World War II in Korea with the Counter Intelligence Corps.  I am the oldest granddaughter, and also a veteran having served in the US Regular Army during the Viet Nam Era.    After the war, Charles Rosario Spano settled in South Philadelphia and lived at 717 Christian Street.

    Charles Rosario Spano was born in Italy (Sicily) and served with the American Expeditionary Forces in France, 2nd Cavalry, Troop 'B' under the command of General John J. Pershing.  He was naturalized on March 12, 1920 and was honorably discharged on June 4, 1920.

    According to his enlistment record he served in the Toul Sector, France, Defensive, the St. Mihiel Offensive, the Battle of Aire River, and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive between April 14, 1918 and November 11, 1918 remaining in France until June, 1919.

    He received, along with other soldiers in his company, letters of commendation signed by General Pershing and his Commanding Officer, Major General Peter E. Traub.  A bronze victory button was awarded and remarks of his excellent character and honest and faithful service were mentioned in his records.

    Thanks to the World War l Centennial Commission for the opportunity to recognize my grandfather.

    Charles Rosario Spano documents

    Charles Rosario Spano Enlistment - 13 JUN 1916

    Charles Rosario Spano Commendation from Maj Gen Peter E. Traub - 1 OCT 1918

    Charles Rosario Spano Departure msg. from Gen. J. J. Pershing - 28 FEB 1919

    Charles Rosario Spano Passport with picture - 15 JUN 1920

    Charles Rosario Spano Naturalization - 12 MAR 1920

    Charles Rosario Spano Honorable Discharge - 4 JUN 1920

    Private First Class Ira Cranmer Keller - Company B, 2nd Platoon, 8th   Machine Gun Battalion, 3rd Division, “Rock of the Marne”, of the American Expeditionary Forces.  During the Second  Battle of the Marne in France, PVT. Keller became the first Clinton County. Pennsylvania soldier to be killed in World War 1.  Killed July 15, 1918, age 24.

    PVT Ira KellerPVT Ira Cranmer Keller

    Corporal Beale Marshall Darby, 18, served with Company C, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2nd  Infantry “Indian Head” Division of the American Expeditionary Forces.  CPL Darby was killed during the Aisne-Marne Offensive, 18 July, 1918.
    CPL Beale Darby
    CPL Beale Darby

    2nd Lt. Willis Lincoln Paul - Norwood, PA, Delaware County.  He served from May 1917 to Jan, 1919 in the 53rd Pioneer Infantry Regiment.  (Pioneers assign troops to march at the head of each battalion to clear a passage through obstructons, improve roads, build bridges and do minor engineering or construction work that may be necessary for an advance.)  He was at Ft Niagara, NY, 5/10/17 to 8/15/17, Camp Meade, MD, and Camp McLellan, 8/15/17 and Camp Wadsworth, SC. from 10/1917 to 1/6/1919.

    Willis Lincoln Paul 1919 2d LtWillis Lincoln Paul 2d Lt - 1919

    Paul Snyder, Roaring Springs, Pennsylvania
    Paul Snyder portrait DSCN3517                      Paul Snyder portrait

    Paul Snyder 1990 DSCN3597Paul Snyder, shortly before his death in 1990, just shy of his 90th birthday

    Victory Medal Paul Snyder DSCN3511Victory Medal with campaign bars - Paul Snyder

    Victory Medal Paul Snyder DSCN3512Victory Medal - Paul Snyder

    Service Medal Pennsylvania Railroad DSCN3516Service Medal from Pennsylvania Railroad - Paul Snyder

    Service Medal Pennsylvania Railroad DSCN3515Service Medal from Pennsylvania Railroad - Paul Snyder

    Paul Snyder Pocket Testament DSCN3502Paul Snyder - pocket Testament

    Paul Snyder Pocket Testament DSCN3501Paul Snyder - pocket Testament

    Paul Snyder Pocket Testament DSCN3503Paul Snyder - pocket Testament

    cross collected on the battle field by Paul Snyder DSCN3508Cross collected on battlefield - Paul Snyder

    German helmet Paul Snyder brought back DSCN3499German helmet Paul Snyder brought back

    German helmet Paul Snyder brought back DSCN3500German helmet Paul Snyder brought back

    Clarence Henry Bentz, Slatington, PA
    Clarence H Bentz


    Grandfather of Kris Bentz-Smith Board Member/Treasurer of Descendants and Friends of the 314th Infantry Regiment AEF

    Private Clarence H. Bentz was born in Friedens PA (Lehigh County). He was a steel worker and was inducted into the US Army on May 20, 1918.
    Left for Camp Meade May 28, 1918 and trained at this location with the 79th Division 314 Infantry Company F.
    Sailed for France July 7, 1918 aboard the USS Leviathan.

    Participated in the battles at Nantillois and Malancourt and was wounded in the Argonne Forest on September 29, 1918 while participating in the battle at Montfaucon.

    Due to his wounds and while in a hospital in France he remained listed with the 314th until October 26, 1918
    Listed as casual with the 33rd Company, 9th Brigade, 153rd Infantry from October 26, 1918 through 25 March 1919 at Camp Dix New Jersey. He arrived home from France March 6, 1919.

    Clarence continued through his life being a member of the Veterans of the 314th while serving at times as Vice President of the Allentown District.

    Clarence H Bentz draft card 1

    Clarence H Bentz draft card 2Clarence Henry Bentz Draft Registration Card

    Pennsylvanians who died serving in the British armed forces during the First World War

    This information was kindly provided by Michael O'Brien from research for his book Twilight of the Special Relationship: Americans who Fought and Died in the British Armed Forces 1914-1921

    Augustus White, Berwick, aircraft mechanic, influenza, 19 October 1918.

    Private Edmund Garretson Cook, Philadelphia, 4 Battalion Grenadier Guards, mortally wounded 1 August 1917 at Passchendaele.

    Edmund cookEdmund Cook

    Lt. Dillwyn Parrish Starr, Philadelphia, 2 Battalion Coldstream Guards, killed in action 15 September 1916. His gravestone in The Guards Cemetery, Les Boeufs refers to Philadelphia.

    Lt D P starrLt. Starr
    Lt D P Starr grave
    Lt. Starr grave

     Meredith B. Lewis, born in Philadelphia, 43 Squadron, RAF, Missing 19 July 1918.
    Lewis Draft 1Lewis Draft 2

    Mortimer P. Crane, Philadelphia, Mount Airy, (his name is on the restored memorial), Mid air collision 15 July 1918.
    Mt. Airy War Tribute
    Mortimer P. Crane listed among the dead from Mt. Airy, Lovett Memorial Library,

    Theodore Hostetter, Philadelphia, 3 Squadron RAF, shot down 29 September 1918.
    Theodore Hostetterhostetter mem2

    Rupert Spencer, Philadelphia, Airman 1st Class, 42 (Training) Wing, pneumonia in Canada, 5 October 1918.


    Pennsylvanians on the Canadian National Vimy Memorial, France
    Seven Pennsylvania-related soldiers are listed among the names of the missing having no known grave, inscribed on the Canadian National Vimy Memorial, France. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial bears the inscribed names of 11,168 missing, killed in action in France but whose remains have not been found or identified.  This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.  Mr. O'Brien is the author of Twilight of the Special Relationship:  Americans Who Served and Died in the British Armed Forces 1914-1921
    Canadian National Vimy Memorial

    1. Private Thomas Birtley
    Died 29 September 1918 Age 20
    58 Battalion Canadian Infantry
    Son of Mr and Mrs C. Birtley
    419 Bates St. Scranton

    2. Private Henry D. Ervin
    27 August 1918 Age 23
    58 Battalion Canadian Infantry
    Son of Henry D. and Annie Ervin of Royersford

    3. Private William Owen Fowle
    1 March 1917 Age 24
    75 Battalion Canadian Infantry
    Son of William and Emily Ann Bernard Fowle
    101 Westwood St., Mount Washington, Pittsburg

    4. Private Thomas Scott Freebairn
    17 June 1916 Age 23
    3 Battalion Canadian Infantry
    Son of James S. and Eliza S. Freebairn

    5. Private Thomas McCulloch
    3 May 1917 Age 34
    31 Battalion Canadian Infantry
    Son of Mrs Elizabeth Brennan McCulloch of Pennsylvania

    6. Private John Martin Quinn
    28 September 1916 Age 28
    26 Battalion Canadian Infantry
    Son of Mrs Frank Whims ( formerly Quinn)
    and the late James Quinn
    349 Nichols St Pottsville

    7. Private Clyde Sampson
    24 August 1917 Age 25
    2 Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion
    Son of John C. and Rosannah Sampson


    The following Pennsylvania-related soldiers served with British forces and are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. The memorial commemorates more than 72,000 men of the British and Commonwealth forces who died in the Somme sector and have no known grave, the majority of whom died during the Somme offensive of 1916.   This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.
    Thiepval Memorial and Anglo French Cemetery

    Private Walter Blythe
    KIA 1 July 1916 Aged 24
    2 Battalion Royal Fusiliers
    Brother of Henry Blythe
    314 North State Street
    Clark's Summit, Lackawanna County
    Private Clark was one of the 19,500 British
    soldiers killed on the first day of the Battle of
    The Somme-the worst day in the history of the
    British Army.

    Sapper Clifford Augustus Harris
    23 December 1915 Aged 22
    185 Tunnelling Company, Royal Engineers
    Husband of Mabel Harris
    Ronaele Manor Elkins Park

    Private Clement Mellor
    3 September 1916
    1/5 Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regiment)
    Son of John Mellor
    Argyle Ave, Ambler

    Private Harry Swindells
    13 November 1916 Aged 19
    1/6 Cheshire Regiment
    Son of James and Louisa Swindells
    1322 Sellers Street, Frankford, Philadelphia
    Killed on almost the last day of the Somme

    Private Allan Oliver Atkin
    6 November 1917 Aged 34
    1/4 South Lancashire Regt.
    Son of the late C. Atkin

    Lieutenant Lovel Hardwick Barlow
    KIA 16 August 1916, Aged 24
    of 13 Bn.The King's (Liverpool. Regiment)
    Son of Mrs Ronald Hardwick Barlow of Bryn Mawr


    Arras Memorial to the Missing

    The following Pennsylvania-related soldiers served with the British armed forces and were killed during the British offensive at Arras in April and May 1917.  They are commemorated on the Arras Memorial to the Missing.  This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.
    Arras Memorial and Fauberg DAmiens Cemetery

     Arras Memorial and Fauberg-D'Amiens Cemetery

    Private William Brown Miller
    11 April 1917 or 12 April 1917 Aged 24
    7/8 Battalion Kings Own Scottish Borderers
    Son of the Late James and Margaret Brown Miller
    Born in Pittsburgh

    Private John Edward Morrison
    23 April 1917 Aged 23
    49 Field Ambulance Royal Army Medical Corps
    Son of Mr and Mrs John Morrison
    Linwood, Delaware County

    Rifleman Barnett Rabinovitz
    3 May 1917 Aged 20
    8 Battalion Kings Royal Rifle Corps
    Son of J and A Rabinovitz

    Private Ernest Walker
    23 April 1917 Aged 30
    8 Battalion South Staffordshire Regiment
    Husband of Mrs Arthur Toy (formerly Walker)


    Menin Gate Memorial at Ypres, Belgium

    These Pennsylvanians are named on the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing at Ypres which has 55,000 names. This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.

    Menin Gate Ypres BelgiumMenin Gate Memorial to the Missing, Ypres, Belgium

    Private H I Baker
    3 Nov 1917 Aged 20
    20 Battalion Canadian Infantry
    Son of Abraham and Rose Baker
    1034 Gibbon St., Pittsburgh

    Private Joseph Henry Clare
    17 May 1915 Aged 29
    Princess Patricia's Light Infantry
    Son of Hannah Clare
    6 English St., Pittsburgh

    Private S Dwyer
    22 April 1915 Aged 29
    3 Canadian Infantry
    Husband of May Dwyer
    179 Railroad St., Bloomsburg, Columbia Co.

    Corporal Charles Ian Forman
    30 Oct 1917 Aged 29
    Son of Charles and Amelia Forman
    Silverdale, Bucks Co.

    Private Clarence Daniel Kaelin
    2 May 1915 Aged 26
    3 Canadian Infantry
    Son of Blasius and Amanda Kaelin
    Shields, Leetsdale

    Private Richard Lindop
    22 June 1917 Aged 43
    4 Battalion Australian Pioneers
    Husband of Frances Lindop
    1821 Cliff St., McKeesport

    Sergeant James Paul
    24 April 1915 Aged 40
    7 Canadian Infantry
    Brother of Hugh Fitzpatrick Paul
    Lottie Appts 2 Dinland Way, Oakland Station, Pittsburgh

    Corporal Herbert Susssemilch
    30 Oct 1914
    1 Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers
    Son of Frederick Sussemilch
    4252 Romain St., Frankford, Philadelphia

    Private James Raphael Sullivan
    15 April 1916 Aged 28
    24 Canadian Infantry
    Son of Bridget Sullivan
    201 Dundoff St., Carbondale


    Lijssenthoek Military Cemetery, Belgium

    Men with Pennsylvania connections who are buried or commemorated in Commonwealth War Grave sites in Belgium.  This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.

    Lijssenthoek Mil CemeteryLijssenthoek Military Cemetery, Belgium

    1. Private Edwin Thomas Wolfe; KIA 23 July 1916; 5 Canadian Infantry; son of Margaret c. Wolfe; 610 High St., Honesdale

    2. Company Sergeant Major Samuel Crothers; 20 January 1917; aged32; 2 Battalion South Lancashire Regiment; husband of Cissie Wagner (formerly Crothers); 829 Pottsville St., Pottsville

    3. Sergeant Robert Penoyer Thorne; 25 April 1916; aged 42; 1 Canadian Infantry; Husband of Helen Thorne; 2526 South 18 St., Philadelphia

    4. Lt. R McIntyre; 3November 1917; Aged 33; 42 Canadian Infantry; awarded Military Cross and Military Medal; husband of Grace McIntyre 2021 East Tioga St., Philadelphia

    5. Sergeant Andrew Warrender; 12 April 1918; aged 19; 1 Batt. Royal Scots Fusiliers; son of Christina Warrender; 1819 Runnette Avenue Lincoln Park, Pittsburgh

    6. Major Charles Walter Stewart; 3 June 1916; aged 36; 10 Canadian Infantry; husband of Frances Stewart 105 Niffin St. [sic] Germantown, Philadelphia

    7. Private R. Hurlbert; 29 Nov 1915; aged 20; 2 Canadian Infantry; Native of Scranton

    8. Gunner Edwin Lewis; 10 June 1917; aged 26; 50th Battery 34 Brigade Royal Field Artillery; husband of Jenna Griffiths (formerly Lewis) 288 Andover St., Wilkes Barre.


    Global Conflict

    Pennsylvanians who lost their lives while serving around the world in British and Commonwealth forces during WW1.  This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.


    These men died from training accidents or illness, especially the Influenza epidemic of 1918.

    1. Private Gerald Trice; died 28 August 1918; 44 Canadian Infantry; son of Charles H. Trice 191 South St. Philadelphia; buried Fort Erie Spears Cemetery, Ontario.
    2. Private John Spittal; 27 June 1918; aged 23; Canadian Army Medical Corps; husband of Myrtle Spittal; 11 North 5th St, Newport; Halifax Nova Scotia Memorial.
    3. Private Robert Williams; 27 June 1918; aged 31; CAMC; husband of Mary J Williams, 1406 Mifflin St Homestead; Halifax Memorial NS
    4. Private Peter Teck; 11 Dec 1919; aged 29; 38 Canadian Infantry; son of Cosmos Simeon Tkachenko; Russian Monastery South Canaan; Toronto Prospect Cemetery.
    5. Private Harry Schofield; 20 November 1917; aged 46; CAMC; husband of Annie Pownall Schofield of Philadelphia; Toronto St John’s Norway Cemetery.


    This man served on the Salonika Front against the Bulgarians.

    1. Private Daniel Joseph Shelly; 7 May 1917; aged 24; 14 Kings Liverpool; son of Amy Atkinson Shelly of Philadelphia; he was born 2 February 1892 in Brooklyn NYC.


    This man served in the Turkish campaign.

    1.Private William Ewart Round; 7 April 1916; aged 29; B Company 1 Manchester
    Regiment; son of Benjamin and Edith Round; 5 Brown’s Place, Pittsburgh;
    Baghdad North Gate Cemetery.


    This man was a member of the British Expeditionary Force against the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War.

    1. Private Thomas Ross; 14 October 1918; aged 19; 2/10 Royal Scots; son of Matthew and Christina Ross 319 North A St., Philadelphia; Archangel Memorial.


    1. Driver Isser Stern; 1 December 1918; aged 31; South African Service Corps; Son of Mr and Mrs Samuel Stern; 3143 Arizona St, Philadelphia; Dar Es Salaam War Cemetery.


    1. Private John Fitzgerald; 1 December 1915; aged 31; 1 Battalion Medical Section, Newfoundland Regt; Mentioned in Despatches; son of John and Mary Fitzgerald; 5964 Baum Boulevard, East Liberty; Azmak Cemetery Suvla. This man was a prisoner of war.

    2. Private Evan James; 8 August 1915; aged 30; 8 Welsh Regiment; sother in law of Mrs Donald Powell 62 Fellow St, Breslau; Helles Memorial Gallipoli.


    Pennsylvanians buried or commemorated in the United Kingdom

    This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.

    1. Bramshott St Mary Cemetery, Hampshire
    Private Lawrence Patrick Pitzer; 24 October 1918; aged 20; 8th (Reserve Battalion) Canadian Infantry; son of Almon and Lydia Pitzer; New Castle.

    2. Brookwood Military Cemetery, Surrey;
    Lieutenant Harold Van Allen Bealer;
    7 January 1918; aged24; 42nd Canadian Infantry; DCM, MM; son C Fred and Carrie Bealer; Easton.

    3. Bodelwyddan St Margaret’s Churchyard Flintshire;
    Pioneer A. Johnson;
    3 November 1918; aged 40; 4th Reserve Company Royal Engineers; enlisted at Philadelphia.

    4. Great Crosby St. Luke’s Churchyard Lancashire;
    Major Richard Edward Hood
    7 August 1919; aged 58; 1st/2nd Lowland Brigade Royal Engineers; twice Mentioned in Despatches; husband of Margaret Hood 13 Public Avenue, Montrose.

    5. Edinburgh Comely Bank Cemetery;
    Private O. Farley; 5 August 1915; 3rd
    Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders; husband of Mary Jane Farley 2416 N. 13 St., Philadelphia.

    6. Epsom Cemetery Surrey;
    Lance Corporal Charles Huhn Rhawn; 23 June 1916;
    Aged 26; Transport Depot Canadian Army Service Corps; son of Horace and Margaret Huhn Rhawn, Philadelphia.

    7. Liverpool Allerton Cemetery;
    Fireman William Robertson Benzie; 26 January
    1919; HM Tug Taliesen Mercantile Merchant Marine; husband of Elsie Jane Benzie 348 Bethlehem Pike, Ambler.

    8. Warrington Cemetery;
    Sapper William Bramhall; 18 November 1918; aged
    43; 645 Field Company Royal Engineers; husband of Alice Bramhall,
    Wheatland, Mercer County.

    9. Warlingham All Saints Churchyard, Surrey;
    Flight Cadet George Wallace
    McAdam (served as Wallace); 26 July 1918; Royal Air Force; son O. D. J. McAdam and Rebecca McAdam of Washington PA.

    10. Sunderland (Southwick) Cemetery;
    Sapper William John Forbister;20
    January 1919; aged 33; Royal Engineers; husband of Sarah Ann Forbister
    127 Chestnut St., Washington.

    11. Sunderland ( Bishopwearmouth) Cemetery;
    Private J W A Jackson; 23
    December 1920; aged 24; 2nd/5th West Yorkshire Regiment ( Prince of Wales Own); son of Elizabeth Campbell of Patton Cambria County.

    12. Morden Cemetery;
    Private John McAllister; 25 December 1916; aged 41
    13 Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders; husband of Elizabeth McAllister
    6 Park-Herst St, Northside, Pittsburgh.

    13. Kensal Green (St Mary’s Roman Catholic Cemetery) London;
    Lieutenant Peter Ashmun Ames; 21 November 1920; aged 32; 2nd/1st Grenadier Guards
    And General List; Born at Titusville

    Peter Ashmun Ames DSC 4112Image from Twilight of the Special Relationship by Michael O'Brien

    14.  East Boldre (St Paul's Churchyard)
    Lt John Dobson Thomas
    20 March 1918; aged 37
    1 Squadron Royal Flying Corps
    Born Pennsylvania
    Lt. Thomas was killed when he crashed after failing to pull out of a dive.

    The following men were Merchant Seamen whose names are on The Tower Hill Memorial in London

    15. Horseman Joseph Garrity; 20 October 1915; SS Cabotia; son of Mrs M A
    Garrity 521 Lehigh St East, Mauch Chunk [Jim Thorpe]

    16. Sailor W A Burbank; 24 November 1917; aged 25; SS Sabia; son of William
    Burbank 5538 Upland St, Philadelphia.

    17. Horseman John McGeehan; 19 February 1918; aged19; SS Philadelphian;
    Son of Mrs Con McGeehan 540 N. Wyoming St, Hazleton.

    18. Fireman Lewis Robinson; 17 February 1917; aged 33; SS Okement; son of
    Bettie Norton (formerly Robinson) 3370 Irving St, Philadelphia. He was born
    at Cape Charles Virginia.

    Pennsylvanians buried or commemorated in France

    Dud corner cemetery Loos Memorial
    Loos Memorial, Loos-en-Gohelle, France

    This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.  The fallen are listd below by their burial sites.

    1. Adanac Military Cemetery, Miraumont, Somme. Private R. Dalzell; 8 October 1916;aged 28; 4 Canadian Infantry; son of William and Letitia Dalzell (nee Fulton); 500 Lytle St Hazelwood Pittsburgh.
    2. Agny M.C. Pas de Calais; Private A. McDowell; 8 July 1916; aged 18; 4 King’s Own Royal Lancaster Regt ; son of Robert James and Sarah McDowell;6038 Hoeveler St Pittsburgh.
    3. Albuera Cem. Extension Pas de Calais; Gunner J. E. Anderson;22 April 1917; aged 25; C Battery 34 Brigade Royal Field Artillery; born Philadelphia.
    4. Anneux British Cem. Nord; Private William Baden Cartwright; 29 September 1918; aged 18; 58 Canadian Infantry; son of Mr and Mrs Walter Cartwright; 5208 N. Mitchell St Philadelphia.
    5. Adanac; Sergeant James Ernest Linthwaite; 25 November 1917; aged 27; 19 Queen Alexandra’s Own Royal Hussars; Military Medal; son of James and Annie Linthwaite;7331ford Avenue, Fox Chase, Philadelphia.
    6. Adanac; Private Robert McIntyre;27 Sept. 1918; aged 26; 102 Canadian Infantry; husband of Mrs Robert McIntyre; 2223 E Huntingdon Philadelphia.
    7. Aanac; Private Charles Reid; 29 Sept. 1918; aged 31; 58 Canadian Infantry; husband of F. Birch (formerly Reid) 1523 S. Taney St Philadelphia.
    8. Athies Communal Cemetery Extension; Private Thomas Conley; 16 May 1917; aged 21; 1/8 Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders; son of Joseph and Mary Conley; 1639 N. Allison St West Philadelphia.
    9. Aubigny Communal Cem Ext; Private W. A. Pountney; 5 Sept 1918; aged 20; 54 Canadian Infantry; son of William and Sarah Pountney; 7313 Lawndale Ave Philadelphia.
    10. Bailleul Road East Cem Pas de Calais; Lance Corporal Andrew James Inkster; 18 April1917; aged 22; 1/6 Black Watch (Royal Highlanders); son of Charles and Mary Inkster; 1329 N. Aldney St W Philadelphia.
    11. La Baraque Brit Cem Bellenglise, Aisne; Sergeant Janes Lee; 3 Oct 1917; aged 37; Military Police Corps; Mentioned in Despatches; husband of Winifred Lee; 2823 S Sydenham St Philadelphia.
    12. Beaucourt Brit Cem Somme; Private George H Dodson ; 8 Aug 1918; 54 Canadian Inf; husband of Ruth Dodson; 662 Dayton Rd Bryn Mawr.
    13. Beaucourt; Private Alfred Dunn; 8 July 1918; aged 39; 54 Canadian Inf; husband of Mary H Dunn; 1747 N 7 St Philadelphia.
    14. Bellicourt Brit Cem Aisne; Private G T Keith; 18 Sept 1918; aged 18; 1 Cameron Highlandersl; son of William and Mary Keith; 618 Preston St Philadelphia.
    15. Bouchoir New Brit Cem Somme; Private W C Foster; 12 August 1918; aged 28; 116 Canadian Inf; husband of Letitia Foster; The Chamber of Commerce Pittsburgh.
    16. Bouchoir; Private Robert Pollock King; 12 August 1918; aged 36; 116 C I; huband of Jane M Gavies (formerly King); 1200 W Atlantic St Philadelphia.
    17. Boves West Communal Cem Ext; Farrier Sgt W Hughes; 21 Aug 1918; aged 33; 8 Brigade Canadian Field Artillery; husband of Marguerite Hughes; 2720 South Marshall St Philadelphia.
    18. Brewery Orchard Cem Bois-Grenier Nord; Private Frederick Tindall; 28 Oct 1915; aged 19; 11 Northumberland Fusiliers; son of John and Mary Ann Tindall; 324 Maybrick St South Hills Branch Pittsburgh.
    19. Bucquoy Road Cem Ficheux Pas de Calais; Private Arthur Thomson; 30 Sept 1918; aged 31; 116 Canadian Inf; husband of Christina Thomson 1016 Maple Ave Wilmerding.
    20. Bully-Grenay Communal Cem British Extension Pas de Calais; Gunner H G Jones; 14 April 1917; aged 20; 1/1 Welch Heavy Battery Royal Garrison Artillery; son of Hugh and Ellen Jones 438 Market St Bangor Northampton.
    21. Cabaret Rouge British Cem Souchez Pas de Calais; Private George Boehm; 12 Feb 1917; aged 21; 76 Canadian Inf; son of Mrs G A Boehm; Trevose.
    22. Cabaret Rouge; Private John Stevenson Brown; 24 March 1918; aged 28; 6 Cameron Highlanders; husband of Elizabeth Brown; 1701 Race St Philadelphia.
    23. Cambrai Memorial Louveral Nord; Lance Corporal John McDowell; 1 Dec 1917; aged 32; 1 Battalion Welsh Guards; son of Sarah Byram ( formerly McDowell) ; 2436 S Lambert St Philadelphia.
    24. Cambrai Memorial; Lance Sgt Percy Simpson; 7 Dec 1917; aged 22; A Company 11 Inniskilling Fusiliers; previously wounded at Thiepval and Messines Ridge; son of Robert and Rachel Simpson; Philadelphia.
    25. Cambrin Churchyard Ext Pas de Calais; Lance Corporal W Russell; 10 May 1916; aged 28; 2 Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders; husband of Hannah Rudden ( formerly Russell); 2213 E Harold St Philadelphia.
    26. Canada Cem Tilloy-les-Cambrai Nord; Private William Watkinson; 1 Oct 1918; aged 27; 43 Canadian Inf; husband of Mrs H M Playfair (formerly Watkinson); 111 Urania Ave Guinsbury.
    27. Cantimpre Canadian Cem Sailly Nord; Private James Mooney; 30 Sept 1918; aged 39; 54 Canadian Inf; husband of Elizabeth Mooney; 414 E Somerset St Philadelphia.
    28. Cantimpre; Private Norman Francis Wilmot-Gilbert; 28 Sept 1918; aged 24; Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Inf; son of William J and Agnes Wilmot-Gilbert; 734 Northampton St Easton.
    29. Cerisy-Gailly Military Cem Somme; Private Edward Bonsall Pascoe; 19 Aug 1918; aged 35; 7 Canadian Inf; brother of Charles Pascoe 1301 N 61 St Philadelphia.
    30. La Chaudiere Mil Cem Vimy Pas de Calais; Private Daniel Heal; 3 April 1918; aged 30; 42 Canadian Inf; son of Mary Hawkins (formerly) Heal and the late Edwin Heal; Old Forge.
    31. Crouy Brit Cem Crouy-sur-Somme; Private Albert Edward Bleil; 12 Aug 1918; aged 21; 29 Canadian Inf; born Philadelphia.
    32. Daours Communal Cem Ext Somme; Gunner John Carson Harvie; 25 Aug 1918; aged 20; 283 Siege Battery Royal Garrison Artillery; son of Andrew and Kate Harvie; 36 Grove Avenue, Oil City.
    33. Duisans Brit Cem Etrun Pas de Calais; Private Arthur Johnson; 10 Sept 1917; aged 24; 13 East Yorkshire Regt; husband of Florence Mander (formerly Johnson); Indiana, PA.
    34. Dury Mill Brit Cem Pas de Calais; Lt Ralph Joseph Rieger; 2 Sept 1918; aged 30; 38 Canadian Inf; son of John and Sarah Rieger; Cornwalls Heights, Bucks County.
    35. Flatiron Copse Cem Mametz Somme; Private James MacFadyen; 13 Aug 1916; aged 19; 1 Black Watch (Royal Highlanders); son of Alexander NacFadyen; Marcus Hook.
    36. Franvillers Communal Cem Ext Somme; Corporal Charles Hampden Miller; 1 June 1918 aged 22; 28Australian Inf; husband of Mrs H D Mansfield; 1224 Rising Sun Avenue Philadelphia.
    37. Givenchy Road Canadian Cem Neuville St Vaast Pas de Calais; Private Eli Rossiter; 9 April 1917; aged 32; Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry; husband of Hannah Godfrey (formerly Rossiter); Riceville Crawford County.
    38. Gouzeaucourt New Brit Cem Nord; Private Harry McConnell; 23 Sept 1918; aged 20; 9 Battalion Highland Light Inf; son of David and Sarah J McConnell; 20 Oakwood Road Grafton Station Pittsburgh.
    39. Hermies Hill Brit Cem Pas de Calais; Sergeant F Mossop; 30 Dec 1917; aged 21; 1 King’s Liverpool; D C M and Bar, M M; son of Charlie and Emily Ann Mossop; 412 Beaver St Sewickly.
    40. Hillside Cem Le Quesnel Pas de Calais; Private R Pilston; 9 August 1918; aged 33; 15 Canadian Inf; son of John and Emma Pilston; Creighton New Kensington.
    41. La Pugnoy Mil Cem Pas de Calais; Private Ernest Taylor; 10 April 1917; aged 19; 18 Canadian Inf; son of William and Elizabeth Taylor; 3065 N Bonsall St Philadelphia.
    42. Ligny St Flochel Brit Cem Averdoingt Pas de Calais;Private W McCallum; 30 Aug 1918; 116 Canadian Inf; son of Agnes McCallum; 3334 1 St Philadelphia.
    43. Loos Memorial Pas de Calais; Corporal William Cochrane; 25 Sept 1915; aged 28; 10 Gordon Highlanders; husband of Agnes Stevenson Cochrane; 426 Montgomery Ave, Haverford.
    44. Loos Mem; Private Hugh Stevenson; 25 Sept 1915; aged 20; 2 Gordon Highlanders; son of R and Christine B Stevenson; Yatesboro, Armstrong County.
    45. Loos Mem; Private John Laurence Sullivan; 3 Oct 1915; aged 21; 2 Cheshire Regt; son of Daniel P Sullivan; 405 Center St Johnsonburg.
    46. Mailly Wood Cem Mailly Maillet Somme; Private A Clark; 13 Nov 1916; 6 Black Watch; brother of Mr J Clark; Irwin.
    47. Manitoba Cem Caix Somme; Private Horace Stanley Hood; 9 Aug 1918; aged 28; 8 Canadian Inf; son of Reverend A L Hood and Mary Hood; 1664 N Edgewood St Philadelphia.
    48. Maroc Brit Cem Grenay Pas de Calais; Private W Barr; 17 Jan 1917; aged 28; 20 Canadian Inf; son of Thomas Richardson and Matilda Barr; W Beaver St Glenfield.
    49. Monchy Brit Cem Monchy Le Preux Pas de Calais; Private H S Horrocks; 21 Mar 1918; aged 22; 16 Company Machine Gun Corps; son of Edward Horrocks; 21 E Elm St Norristown.
    50. Niagara Cem Iwuy Nord; Private Jacob Wilson; 11 Oct 1918; aged 21; 20 Canadian Inf; son of Mrs Martha Wilson; 1404 and a half Glenn St Homestead.
    51. Noyon New Brit Cem Oise; Rifleman J Stead; 23 March 1918; aged 28; 8 Rifle Brigade; husband of Mrs T Hammond (formerly Stead); 1907 E Boston Ave Kensington Philadelphia.
    52. Pozieres Brit Cem Ovillers La Boiselle Somme; Private Samuel Dunwoody; 15 Sept 1916; aged 30; 19 Canadian Inf; son of Thomas and Rachel Dunwoody; 2862 N Water St Philadelphia.
    53. Pozieres; Lt James Sanford Price; 13 Sept 1916; aged 30; 3 Brigade Canadian Field Artillery; son of Giles D and Augusta Chase Price; Erie.
    54. Puchevillers Brit Cem Somme; Private Albert James Tanner; 25 Sept 1916; aged 21; MM; 1 Canadian Inf; son of James and Ann Tanner; 220 E Westmoreland St Philadelphia.
    55. Serre Road No. 2 Cem Somme; Lt Charles Corbett Buckle; 3 July 1916; aged 24; A Company 6 Queen’s Own (Royal West Kent Regt); son of Muriel Buckle of Philadelphia.
    56. Serre Rd; Private Robert Andrew Montgomery; 8 Sept 1916; aged 25; 13 Canadian Inf; son of Joseph and Ellen Montgomery; 6516 Gesner St West Philadelphia.
    57. St Olle Brit Cem Raillencourt Nord; Private P Gleason; 29 Sept 1918; aged 38; 116 Canadian Inf; husband of Sarah Gleason; 3238 Jasper St Philadelphia.
    58. St Olle; Private William Albert Haines; 29 Sept 1918; aged 31; 116 Canadian Inf; son of J Frank and Nancy Haines; Freeport Armstrong County.
    59. St Sever Cem Ext Rouen Seine-Maritime; Sapper William Joseph Griffiths; 22 Nov 1918; aged 43; 1 Canadian Railway Troops; son of Margaret Robbins; 343 Cedar Ave Sharon.
    60. St Sever; Corporal Andrew McDonald; 6 Aug 1917; aged 19; 58 Company Machine Gun Corps; son of David and Rebecca McDonald; 104 Abbott St Luzerne County.
    61. La Targette Brit Cem Neuville-St-Vaast Pas de Calais; Private Curran Joseph Chapin; 24 Mar 1918; aged 22; 8 Company Canadian Machine Gun Corps; son of Curran J and Margaret Wilson Chapin; Meadville.
    62. Thelus Mil Cem Pas de Calais; Lt Edwin Austin Abbey; 10 April 1917; aged 28; 4 Canadian Mounted Rifles; son of William Burling Abbey and Katherine Eleanor Abbey; 1606 Mifflin St Philadelphia.
    63. Thiepval Memorial Somme; Private James Brown; 15 Sept 1916; aged 32; 20 Durham Light Inf; son of James Brown; 620 Post Road Marcus Hook.
    64. Upton Wood Cem Hendecourt-les- Cagnicourt Pas de Calais; Private James Michael McGrath; 1 Sept 1918; aged 32; B Co 5 Canadian Inf; son of Mr and Mrs Frank McGrath; 1404 S 58 St Philadelphia.
    65. Valenciennes (St Roch) Com Cem Nord; Private D A Clawson; 1 Nov 1918; aged 30; 72 Canadian Inf; son of Samuel and Emily Buck Clawson; Johnsonburg.
    66. Vieille Chapelle New Mil Cem Lacouture Pas de Calais; Private Fred Hawthorne; 1 June 1917; aged 25; ½ West Riding Field Ambulance Royal Army Medical Corps; son of Mrs Hannah Barlow; 305 West State Media Delaware County.
    67. Villers Station Cem Villers-au-Bois Pas de Calais; Private Robert Norris; 23 Jan 1918; aged 39; 54 Canadian Inf; born at Manayunk.
    68. The Huts Cem; Gunner W Stevenson; 21 Oct 1917; aged 26; 12 Battery Royal
    Field Artillery; native of Pittsburgh.

    Pennsylvanians buried or commemorated in Belgium

    This information was contributed by Michael O'Brien from his research.

    Tyne Cot Cemetery 3Tyne Cot Cemetery near Ypres

    1. Pvt Hulbert Percy Brown; 13 Nov 1917; aged 21; 52 Canadian Inf; son of George Auretta Brown; Dalton.
    2. Pvt J McCrudden; 26 Sept 1917; aged 26; 5/6 Cameronians (Scottish Rifles); husband of Catherine McCrudden; 2307 S Bancroft St Philadelphia.
    3. Lance Corporal A H Canning; 30 Oct 1917; aged 23; 72 Canadian Inf; son of Thomas and Mary Canning; St Paul’s Rectory Plainfield.
    4. Pvt Joe Briggs; 10 Apr 1918; aged 18; 8 North Staffordshire Regt; son of Henry and Rebecca Briggs; 1740 Church Lane Philadelphia.
    5. 2 Lt Charles Hawkins Inwood; 16 Aug 1917; aged26; 145 Coy Machine Gun Corps (Infantry); worked for Pennsylvania Railroad at Altoona.
    6. Captain Charles John Constable; 9 Oct 1917; aged 36; 1/8 West Yorkshire Regt; husband of Grace La Coste; Philadelphia.
    7. Pvt Hugh Morrison; 24 Nov 1917; 2 Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders; husband of Esther Morrison; 1643 E Lewis St Philadelphia.
    8. Corporal Alexander Smiley; 16 Aug 1917; aged 33; 1 King’s Own Scottish Borderers; son of John and Emma Smiley; Mannheim St, Germantown, Philadelphia.
    9. Ypres Reservoir Cem; Gunner Martin Mark Deibert; 21 Nov 1917; aged 19; 1 Siege Battery Canadian Garrison Artillery; son of Mr A Deibert and Ida Deibert; 522 Weiser St Reading.
    10. Dozinghem Mil Cem; Pvt H Pettit; 27 Oct 1917; aged 39; 7 Bedfordshire Regt; husband of Maud Pettit; 6 Peach St Warren.
    11. Cuesmes Communal Cem; Lance Corporal Delbert Bean; 9 Nov 1918; aged 21; 1 Canadian Division Cyclist Coy; MM; husband of Ethel Bean; 808 E14 St Chester.
    12. Kemmmel No 1 French Cemetery; Lance Corporal W MacPherson; 8 May 1918; aged 27; 1 Cameronians (Scottish Rifles); husband of Rose MacPherson;Kennett Square, Chester County.
    13. Pvt Percy Snowden Claggett; 23 Oct 1917; aged 30; 9 Canadian Railway Troops; son of William and Margaret Claggett; Philadelphia.

  • Secretary Francisco Urena

    Secretary of Veterans Services Francisco Ureña Reads Proclamation of Massachusetts World War One Centennial Commission

    On April 6, 2016, in the Flag Hall of the Massachusetts State House, the proclamation signed by Governor Charles Baker, Lieutenant Governor Karyn Polito, and Secretary of State William Galvin was read to a distinguished and varied audience by Secretary of Veterans Services Francisco Ureña. The program for the proclamation consisted of short speeches by General Leonid Kondratiuk, the historian of the Massachusetts National Guard; Stephen Taber; Roger Fisk, Director of Development of the national World War 1 Centennial Commission; Secretary Ureña; Secretary of Education Jim Peyser; Dan Leclerc, Lecturer on the Yankee Division; and a moment of silence led by Kathleen Lucero, president of the Woburn Historical Society. The commission was pleased to have the support and presence of the Massachusetts Military Historical Society, and the leadership of the American Legion, VFW and Military order of the World Wars attending as well.


  • Tina at St. Annes Cem

    Honoring WWI Soldiers in Anne Arundel County

    For the past 20 plus years Tina Simmons has been researching Anne Arundel County cemeteries and their occupants for the Anne Arundel Genealogical Society. She is trying to keep track of the WWI soldiers buried in those cemeteries, recording their military service. She currently has information on 221 individuals buried within Anne Arundel County. As a disclaimer, although she also has information on individuals at the Annapolis National Cemetery, none are currently listed as World War I veterans although she believes that there are some. At the United States Naval Academy cemetery, there are 52 individuals listed as World War I veterans who she is currently adding to her database.

  • Maine WWI Centennial Home

    Why remember World War I?

    That is the question that we will work to answer during the centennial of Maine's involvement in the American war effort. This page is dedicated to providing stories, events, and news related to Maine in World War I.

    26 division 13rd Battalion, 103rd Infantry in the assault on Torcy, July 18, 1918 (U.S. Army Signal Corps Photo)In 1917, the unthinkable happened: the United States joined the hell that was the Great War. No one knew what the future would hold after the Declaration of War was signed on April 6, but all somehow sensed that things had changed. The hand of war gripped Maine immediately, as the state's National Guard was called up in the days after war was declared, the coast was fortified, and industry shifted from peace to war. More than 32,000 Mainers served in uniform during the war, out of a population of 777,000 in 1917. Over one thousand of those who served would not return to Maine alive. From the Home Front to the Western Front, Mainers made their presence known through their vitality, can-do attitude, and Yankee ingenuity. At the same time, the war left its mark on Maine. In just two quick years, World War I spun the state into a frenzy of activity and propelled the United States to the forefront of the world stage. 

    On April 3, 1917, the Lewiston Evening Journal carried the ominous headline "United States at War with German Empire." Below it was Governor Milliken's war message. Three days later, Congress officially declared war on Germany. On April 12, a telegram arrived to the Military Department at Camp Keyes in Augusta: “I am, in consequence,” read the telegram from Secretary of War Baker, “instructed by the President to call into the service of the United States forthwith, through you, the following units of the National Guard of the State of Maine: the Second Regiment Maine Infantry.”

    The Second Maine was the largest National Guard organization in the state, with companies ranging from Dexter to Augusta, and from Houlton to Eastport. These companies assembled at their hometown armories and began recruiting drives immediately. As they had done in the Civil War, brothers, uncles, fathers, and sons joined up in the same unit to serve alongside each other. 

    As the Second Maine was mobilizing and conducting guard duty at various sites around Maine, other units were being formed. The call to arms was met with a flood of enlistees.  A regiment of heavy artillery was raised, nicknamed "The Milliken Regiment" in honor of the governor, Carl Milliken. Its headquarters was in Brunswick for some time, at Camp Chamberlain on the grounds of Bowdoin College. Chauffeurs and truck drivers formed the 303rd Motor Truck Company. Railway workers from the Maine Central formed the nucleus of Company C, 14th Engineer Regiment (railway). Mainers joined the Navy in great numbers as well. 


    Women went to work in the factories, many for the first time. They made munitions at the Portland Company or shoes, coats, or blankets at the textile mills in western Maine. Maine industry became centered on the war effort. Even potatoes from Aroostook County were being sent to the front. Communities held war bond and Liberty Loan drives, raising more than one hundred million dollars over the course of the war. 


    In the summer of 1917, New England began organizing the first National Guard division. Called the 26th Division - later nicknamed the "Yankee Division" - it contained troops from the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. In August of 1917, the division assembled in Massachusetts. The Second Maine was redesignated as the 103rd U.S. Infantry Regiment, taking on about 1,500 men from the 1st New Hampshire and 400 men from the 1st Vermont. Battery C of the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery Regiment, from Lewiston, lost its big guns and was issued mortars, becoming the 101st Trench Mortar Battery. Hundreds of men from the Maine Coast Artillery were transferred into the 101st Engineer Regiment and 103rd Field Artillery Regiment to fill the vacancies there so that the division could leave for France.

    And thus it was that in the fall of 1917, the 26th Division - with its thousands of Maine men along with it - slipped away in the night and boarded transports headed for France. Beginning in February of 1918, the Yankee Division would enter the front lines and - with the exception of two weeks in August - would remain in combat sectors until the Armistice on November 11. These men - and the thousands of Mainers serving in other units across the Western Front - endured some of the harshest fighting of the war. Despite artillery bombardment, poison gas barrages, machine gun and sniper fire, the influenza, and the ever-present mud, Maine's service members pushed on to ultimate victory.


    When it was all over, Maine's Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines came back home and returned to their lives. Three who served - William Tudor Gardiner, Sumner Sewall, and Owen Brewster - would become Maine governors. Other veterans became active leaders in the legislature or in community politics. Many returned to industry or their farms. Some came home with physical or mental wounds. Most would never forget - for good or ill - what they had witnessed in the Great War. And all fell under the shadow of the war that followed - World War II - and faded into memory. Which is why we must remember them.

    Proclamation from Governor Paul R. LePage

    Proclamation of Maine Observance of the Centennial of World War I

  • Never-before published photos show the U.S. entry into World War I

    By Jonathan Bratten and Thomas Gibbons-Neff for the Washington Post

    24. Americas First Expeditionary Force 16th Regiment U.S. regulars marching thru La Place de la Concorde on July 4 1917

    Thursday marks the centennial of the U.S. entry into World War I. On April 6, 1917, Congress authorized then-President Woodrow Wilson’s declaration of war on Germany. The sinking of the ocean liner Lusitania in 1915, coupled with attacks on U.S. merchant ships and the Zimmerman Telegram in January, convinced a large swath of the American public that war was in the country’s interest.

    Before official military involvement in World War I, Americans had contributed to the Allied war effort with participation in the American Field Service, which consisted of ambulance drivers and medical personnel. With the United States’ official entrance into the war, the American Field Service expanded its efforts, recruiting thousands more to serve overseas.

    The first American combat troops arrived in France in June 1917. These soldiers were with the 1st U.S. Infantry Division and were accompanied by service members of the American Field Service. Once in France, the ambulance drivers and medical personnel were divided up into Section Sanitaire États-Unis, or S.S.U. for short. One of these men was an unnamed ambulance driver with S.S.U. 642 who took pictures of his experiences on the Western Front.

    After the war, his photo scrapbook made its way to Maine, where it ended up with the papers and collections of Albert Greenlaw, an officer in the Maine National Guard and a World War I veteran himself. The scrapbook found its way into the Maine Military Historical Society’s museum in Augusta, Maine. These never-before seen photos provide a snapshot into the remarkable life of ambulance drivers in World War I.

    Read the full article here.

  • New exhibit to showcase Maine woman’s World War I experiences as a ‘Y’ Girl

    Memorabilia from Faith Hinckley's nine months overseas aiding American soldiers will be a featured display at Fairfield's L.C. Bates Museum.


    Faith Hinckley held vigil over the wounded soldier who asked only that she hold his hand tightly until the end.

    They were in a pup tent within a military camp housing 20,000 soldiers near St. Nazaire, France. It was the summer of 1918.

    Hinckley, serving as an international volunteer during World War I, told the soldier she would write a letter home for him. The soldier told her he had no one at home, not a single relative who would remember him.

    She told the dying soldier, whom she knew only as Bill, that he could dictate a letter to her own mother, Harriet, back home in Fairfield, Maine, and that Harriet could be his “borrowed mother.” He dictated two pages of his thoughts and wishes for prayers, picturing his own home as he took his final breath.

    Read the full story here.

  • New short story features a Maine Guardsman in WW1

    A new short story released in the journal "The Strategy Bridge" is from the perspective of a Maine National Guardsman of the 103rd Infantry Regiment in the Aisne-Marne Offensive.


    "Death. He saw it everywhere. It was hard not to see. The fragments of what once had been beautiful groves of trees and verdant wheat fields were scattered everywhere, mixed in with what surely must have once been men.

    But at this point he couldn’t tell.

    The night before, he had dreamt about back home. It was pure, pleasant torture, a dream like that. He was back on his family’s farm, tilling the ground. Cursing at the ever-present rocks that seemed to get gleefully in the way of the blade. Maine grew rocks. And if you could convince it to stop growing rocks, you could grow other things.

    Like wheat."

    Find the rest of this story in its entirety, here.

  • The Great War – Prohibition becomes Patriotism

    How could the Elks Lodge members’ traditional 11 o’clock toast to departed members become unpatriotic? 

    This Way Out2After decades of advocacy, prohibitionists found in World War I food conservation programs an unstoppable vehicle to make prohibition of alcohol patriotic. Even before America declared war, programs saving food aimed to feed starving European refugees. Making alcohol used starch (potatoes, grain, corn) that could feed troops or hungry allies. Drinking alcohol was transformed into an unpatriotic act. Elks Lodge 616 would be square in the debate, and eventually labeled unpatriotic.

    Both Hawaii’s branch of the national Anti-Saloon League and Elks Lodge 616 were founded in 1901. By World War I, the Anti-Saloon League was well organized and part of the ‘establishment.’  The press supported prohibition, even if their readers didn’t. Nippu Jiji editor Yatsutaro Soga supported prohibition and nearly lost his job. Advertiser headlines (“Grain much too precious to waste in intoxicants”) reminded readers liquor was now unpatriotic. “Sake not distilled wants exemption” was neutral, but “Liquor Men squealing” showed Advertiser leanings.  

  • poppyMaryland and World War I

    Over 62,000 Marylanders served in WWI, nearly 2,000 of whom lost their lives. During the war, Fort McHenry became the site of U.S. Army General Hospital No.2 while military installations such as Fort George G. Meade and Aberdeen Proving Grounds were created. Private Henry G. Costin and Ensign Charles Hammann received the Medal of Honor.

    Returning Maryland Veterans made important contributions. House of Delegates member Millard E. Tydings became a Lt. Colonel in the Army and later represented Maryland in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. SGT James Glenn Beall of the Army Ordnance Corps later served in the State Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. These were just two distinguished veterans among the thousands that returned to Maryland.


  • poppyMaryland and World War I

    Over 62,000 Marylanders served in WWI, nearly 2,000 of whom lost their lives. During the war, Fort McHenry became the site of U.S. Army General Hospital No.2 while military installations such as Fort George G. Meade and Aberdeen Proving Grounds were created. Private Henry G. Costin and Ensign Charles Hammann received the Medal of Honor.

    Returning Maryland Veterans made important contributions. House of Delegates member Millard E. Tydings became a Lt. Colonel in the Army and later represented Maryland in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. SGT James Glenn Beall of the Army Ordnance Corps later served in the State Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. These were just two distinguished veterans among the thousands that returned to Maryland.

    America’s declaration of war against Germany in April 1917 found the nation unprepared for the multitude of tasks that had to be performed before an American Army could contribute in any meaningful way to an international land war on the scale of the fighting in Europe. The U.S. industrial base had barely begun to shift to a war footing, mostly as a result of business contracts to support the war requirements of England and France. As a result, U.S. combat forces were largely reliant on French and English military equipment, much of which was unavailable for training purposes—much less combat—until the American units reached France.

    It was not the habit of the United States to maintain a large standing army. Instead, the U.S. maintained a small army reinforced in time of emergency by federalizing National Guard units from the various states. Additional manpower could be raised through the draft. However, National Guard readiness for mobilization varied widely and units would have to be pulled together to undergo training and equipping before sailing to France. New inductees, either through the draft or volunteering, would require significantly more training before their readiness to participate in the collective tasks of combat or support units. Training camps to manage the influx of millions of young men were established throughout the U.S., including Camp Meade, southeast of Baltimore (now Fort Meade), and Aberdeen Proving Ground north of Baltimore.

    The first U.S. infantry division did not enter combat until April 1918. Others soon followed, but most U.S. divisions deployed to France during the spring and summer months of 1918, arriving only in time for the final offensives in September through the end of the fighting on November 11, 1918.

    Building these divisions, of approximately 20,000 men each, began when the government federalized the state national guards, including the Maryland National Guard, on August 5, 1917. Just under 6,900 Maryland national guardsmen mobilized and deployed to Camp McClellan, Alabama, where they became part of the 29th Division.

    In addition to the national guard, the U.S. implemented the Selective Service—the draft. Maryland eventually provided more than 34,000 inductees through this program, the first of whom were sent to Camp Meade on September 26, 1917. Marylanders inducted through this program constituted a large part of the 79th Division. However, the demand for trained soldiers, especially officers and non-commissioned officers, throughout the AEF was so severe that the 79th—and other divisions still in the U.S.—were constantly losing those who had recently undergone training to fill the gaps in divisions either in France, or deploying sooner.

    Men and women from Maryland served throughout the military, including the Army, Navy, Marines, and Coast Guard. Maryland was especially noted for its contribution of medical officers to high positions in the American Expeditionary Forces.

    The 29th Division was known as the ‘Blue and Gray’ Division because its combat regiments came from both northern and southern states. Maryland contributed the 115th Infantry Regiment, and the 110th Artillery Regiment. Together with the 116th Infantry Regiment from Virginia, this constituted the 58th Infantry Brigade—the Gray part of the division. New Jersey provided two infantry regiments that formed the 57th Infantry Brigade—the Blue part. After forming at Camp McClellan, the division finally deployed to France in June 1918. After training in quiet sectors of the front, the 29th Division fought in the final major battle of the war--Meuse-Argonne Offensive that began in October 1918. In its 21 days of combat, the division suffered more than 30% killed or wounded.

    The 29th Division returned to the U.S. in May, 1919, demobilizing at Camp Dix, New Jersey at the end of that month. The 29th remains a National Guard today, and includes units of the Maryland National Guard.

    The 79th Division was one of the new national army divisions. It followed a path similar to that of the 29th, though its ranks were filled with the new inductees rather than national Guardsmen. It was formed in August 1917, sailed to France in July 1918, and fought with the American Expeditionary Force in the Meuse-Argonne offensive. As a result of its service in France, the division was nicknamed ‘The Cross of Lorraine Division.’ Like the 29th Division, the 79th suffered about 30% killed and wounded during the offensive. It returned to the U.S. and demobilized in June, 1919.

    More than 11,000 African Americans from Maryland also served in the US military in World War I. The military at that time was largely segregated and, to a large extent, African Americans served in non-combat logistics roles in the rear areas. While unglamorous, the functions they performed were critical to military success, and literally kept the wheels of the American Expeditionary Force turning. African Americans helped move supplies from French seaports to warehouses, along railroad tracks they laid or maintained, and then distributed the supplies to forward areas to the combat units.

    Others served in combat units, including the 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions, formed with African Americans from every state. Included among these were soldiers of the Maryland National Guard’s 1st Separate Company. After being mustered into active service with other National Guard units in July 1917, this unit became part Company I of the 372nd Infantry Regiment in the 93rd Division. Regiments from the 93rd Division were assigned to French divisions, trained with and used French equipment, and fought gallantly during several major battles of 1918. As a result of their service during the Second Battle of the Marne, the division was nicknamed the ‘Blue Helmets’ and wore a patch with the familiar blue helmet of the French ‘poilu.’ The 372nd Infantry were assigned to the French 157th ‘Red Hand’ Division. The 92nd Division was wore a patch with a buffalo, in honor of African American cavalry units on our western frontier who were called ‘Buffalo Soldiers’ by Native Americans.

    Maryland also contributed its share to the naval forces, supporting the regular navy and Marines as well as the Naval Reserve and Coast Guard with nearly 11,000 servicemen, including more than 500 African Americans. In July, 1917, the U.S. navy also took over a small maritime organization belonging to Maryland’s State Conservation Commission. The ‘Oyster Navy,’ as it was called, was redesignated as Squadron 8, Fifth Naval District. With about 100 men and 19 small craft, it patrolled Maryland waters until early December 1918, after the war ended. The city of Baltimore also became a navy center for a variety of activities, including recruiting, naval intelligence, and securing the region’s waterways.

  • Why We Fought: American WWI Posters and the Art of Persuasion

    August 28 – December 8
    AREA Gallery, Woodbury Campus Center, Portland campus

    Thirteen World War I posters provide a diverse historical context for the many ways in which graphic propaganda was used by the U.S. government and various community groups to bolster support for an unpopular war and convince Americans to do their part to ensure an Allied victory. Rotating displays of USM student responses provide a wide range of contemporary perspectives. The posters are a recent gift to USM Special Collections by retired Tufts history professor Howard Solomon. Co-organized by USM Special Collections and USM Art Galleries.

    All exhibitions and events hosted by the USM Art Department and Gallery are free and open to the public. To learn more about 2017 exhibitions and programs, visit usm.maine.edu/gallery.

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