In May 1918, U.S. troops, commonly known as the Doughboys, fought in their first major battle in Europe during World War I. The war was a turning point in U.S. history, establishing the nation’s influence and prosperity in the 20th century. By the end of combat in November 1918, more than 4 million Americans served.
Now, 100 years later, Fields of Battle, Lands of Peace: The Doughboys, 1917-1918,an outdoor photography exhibition opening March 16th in the Atlanta’s History Center’s Goizueta Gardens, honors the sacrifice of those men and women who served in the conflict that shaped the world in which we live today.
Featuring the work of British photojournalist Michael St Maur Sheil, Fields of Battle tells of the healed scars of World War I through our only remaining living witness: the land on which our heroes fought. The exhibition, in its only Southern appearance, remains on view through July 5th.
Inspired by the concept of land and terrain as the grounds of war and realm of peace, the exhibition is to be installed throughout Goizueta Gardens’ 33 acres—within that garden landscape, telling a story of reconciliation across the lands of warring nations, and the healing of time on the earth itself. On the European soil, once places of devastating violence, we now see landscapes of great beauty, testament to peace and remembrance.The exhibition features historical content as well as archival images to support the beautiful contemporary landscape photography of Michael St. Maur Sheil.
World War I was the first “modern” war, as industry enabled weapons and explosives to be manufactured in vast quantities that brought death and destruction on a scale never previously experienced.
When the United States entered the war, the global conflict had consumed many nations since 1914 and continued for years. The Armistice of November 11, 1918 halted the fighting.
The Western Front on which the Doughboys lived, fought, and died included scenes of environmental degradation, obliterated villages, vast cemeteries, and continuing massive destruction. Much of the landscape of the Western Front looked like an uninhabited planet foreign to them.
The outdoor exhibition containing Sheil’s photography will be displayed throughout Goizueta Gardens, giving guests the opportunity to explore sites of beauty amid the Atlanta History Center’s 33 acres, including the Mary Howard Gilbert Memorial Quarry Garden, Smith Family Farm Gardens, and Swan Woods.
Fields of Battle, Lands of Peace: The Doughboys, 1917-1918, is the final of four Great War-related exhibitions presented by the Atlanta History Center in recognition of World War I’s centennial during 2017-2018.
More than 116,000 American soldiers made the ultimate sacrifice before the “war to end all wars” finally ended.
Traditional World War I memorial poppies bloom along U.S. 78 in Walton County, the Moina Micheal Highway. Planted by the Georgia Department of Transportation in cooperation with the Georgia World War I Centennial Commission, the poppies commemorate long-time University of Georgia faculty member Moina Michael, who developed the idea of using red poppies to support veterans of World War I, and ultimately of all wars. Ms. Michael was from the nearby town of Good Hope in Walton County.
Special broadcasts in May on two BBC channels will commemorate the tragic sinking of the troopship H.M.S. Otranto on Oct. 6, 1918 off the coast of Islay, Scotland. Most of the soldiers aboard were trained at Fort Screven on Tybee Island, Georgia. After an accidental collision with its sister ship the H.M.S. Kashmir, some 500 soldiers and crew were saved, but another 470 died, including nearly 130 from Georgia. In addition to the broadcasts, British Princess Anne will lead commemorations at Islay on May 4 to mark the centennial of the tragedy. See details of the broadcast and photos of the tragedy and its aftermath in this link. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-43948079
Islanders digging the graves at the Otranto Cemetery
This remarkable picture of the accident of Sunday afternoon when the big army truck crashed through the Etowah river bridge, killing three men outright and seriously injuring six others, was taken only a few minutes after the accident occurred. It shows the hole the truck tore in the bridge timbers and the distance of the fall. Around the truck are men engaged in rescue work. At the bottom is Sergeant Abe Marguesee, Syracuse, N.Y., from Infirmary No. 1, Depot brigade, Camp Gordon, who was one of the men killed. Sergeant Marguesee had gone with the party as a "first aid" man in the event of casualties. On June 16, 2018, one hundred years to the date, a memorial event will take place remembering the soldiers from Camp Gordon that were tragically killed during a local military operation. The centennial memorial will be held at 3:00pm at 810 Bridge Mill Avenue, Canton, GA 30114. This is the closest location to the site of the incident on the Etowah River that is now part of Lake Allatoona. Here’s the summary:
This WW1 event has been forgotten in time until now.
On Sunday, June 16, 1918, a secret U.S. Army mission set out from Camp Gordon, at 1am in the morning, to gather evidence and capture army deserters in southern Cherokee County. Some of these deserters were from Camp Wheeler, in Macon, Georgia. The men deserted with their weapons and had banded together for security.
Before sun up, homes were raided in northern Cobb and southern Cherokee Counties, all south of Woodstock. The Army cut the phones lines to keep anyone from the houses they had raided from using a phone to warn other people of this raid. But, it was too late because the deserters had been tipped off days before.
The military convoy needed to cross over the Etowah River, to reach the western hills of Cherokee County, where is was believed the deserters were in hiding. The bridge to use to get into the target area, was Steele's Bridge, off Bells Ferry Road. The first three cars crossed with no problem but the first army truck to enter this covered bridge, broke through the bridge flooring, taking 20 soldiers down with it. The truck fell 40 feet and then upside down into the river below, on top of the men. Three were killed and ten injured. There is strong evidence that the bridge had been sabotaged by cutting into the support beams.
Of the three killed, one was the convoy’s medic. A trained nurse, Mrs.Winnie F. Carpenter, just happened to be visiting friends in a nearby home. When she heard of the incident she rushed to the bridge and started administering aid to the men. No one died after she took over. This lady would later receive a commendation from the United States for what she did that day. She attended Reinhardt College before the war and was trained in nursing at Erlanger Hospital in Chattanooga.
A second man killed, Cpl. Sam Smith, had just received his ten day pass to go home to visit his parents, in Massachusetts. He heard about this planned raid and choose to join the mission. He went home but not the way his parents had planned.
Most the men in this Army convoy were former members of the 82nd Division who, for different reasons, had been left behind when the 82nd deployed to France. The highly decorated Sgt. Alvin York was a member of this division.
As for the truck, it had already been used in Mexico by General Pershing’s forces, before being sent to Camp Gordon. The day after crashing into the river, it was pulled up a 40 foot embankment and driven back to Camp Gordon.
As for the deserters, the army stopped looking for them that day, and this gave them a chance to get away. It appears no one was prosecuted for this crime as the war ended several months later and attention turned to the soldiers coming back from Europe.
Soldiers from Georgia were in this ill fated army convoy. One from Norcross, one from Marietta, one from Atlanta and two army majors were from the Georgia selective service board. Another vehicle in the convoy carried reporters and photographers from the Atlanta Constitution. They reported extensively on this incident. The Georgia governor's personal secretary was in the last vehicle. --- Michael Hitt, World War 1 researcher, Roswell, GA. email@example.com
Editor's Note: This is the first story in a new series, called Georgia Groundbreakers, which celebrates innovative and visionary faculty, students, alumni and leaders throughout the history of the University of Georgia — and their profound, enduring impact on our state, our nation and the world.
By Sara Freeland
It began with a simple idea from a University of Georgia professor — sell poppy flowers to raise money on behalf of soldiers killed and injured in World War I.
Now, nearly 100 years and billions of dollars later, the poppy has become the international symbol of remembrance and support for all military veterans, thanks to the tireless efforts of Moina Belle Michael, affectionately known today as "The Poppy Lady."
"During her lifetime, if you adjust for inflation, poppy sales raised $3 billion worldwide, most of which went directly to veterans," said Tom Michael, a great nephew of Moina Michael, who died in 1944. "She championed the poppy as a permanent symbol and reminder of our collective obligation to support our veterans and their families And through all the poppy sales around the world, her legacy of helping veterans lives on."
Moina Michael, an education professor from the small Georgia town of Good Hope, was in Germany on the final leg of a European vacation when World War I unexpectedly broke out in 1914 — forcing her to flee to Italy to find a ship that would carry her home.
Moina Michael poses with the Poppy Lady Doll, a replica of her, that won a national doll competition held by the Federation Woman's Club in 1932. Michael retired from UGA in 1938 after having worked in education for 54 years.
After a harrowing 16-day trip through mine-infested waters and an ocean patrolled by enemy submarines, she returned to the relative quiet of her Athens, Georgia, home — but did not find peace. The nation was fixated on the war, and Michael did everything she could to bring comfort to soldiers awaiting deployment.
She made sure soldiers were adopted by local families. She also set up a campaign for the families to write the soldiers while they were overseas.
"How busy everyone was kept back in those early days responding to and arousing others to respond to the superhuman struggles to win the war," Michael wrote in her autobiography. "I anguished for some power by which our boys might be saved from gas, bombs [and] shrapnel."
During the war, Michael volunteered with the National YMCA. It was while she was working for the war effort in New York that she was struck by a sudden inspiration.
A young soldier left a copy of Ladies Home Journal on her desk with a marked page containing Lt. Col. John McCrae's famous poem "In Flanders Fields," about the war's devastation.
"The last verse transfixed me," she wrote. "'To you from failing hands we throw the Torch; be yours to hold ir high. If ye break faith with us who die, we shall not sleep, though poppies grow in Flanders Fields.'"
On Nov. 9, 1918 — two days before the armistice that ended World War I — she wrote her own reply to McCrae's poem — entitled "We Shall Keep the Faith" — and decided "always to wear a red poppy of Flanders Fields as a sign of remembrance and emblem of 'keeping the faith with all who died.'"
She left her office and scoured local flower shops in search of silk poppies to share with businessmen, veterans and soldiers.
Moina Belle Michael planted poppies on what is now the UGA Health Sciences Campus.
After the war, Athens and the University of Georgia became a hub for veteran rehabilitation. Michael taught a class of disabled servicemen and every Monday attended Disabled American Veterans chapter meetings. She even planted poppies on what is now UGA's Health Sciences Campus.
She also launched a national letter-writing campaign encouraging others to adopt the poppy. The American Legion designated the red poppy as its official flower in 1920, and distribution of poppies became a Legion national program in 1924.
"The soldiers who made the poppies for sale in America were classified as unfit for any employment by the government because of their war injuries. So they couldn't be hired. But they could make these little poppies," said Tom Michael, who has donated historic materials about his great aunt Moina to UGA's Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library.
Other countries quickly followed suit. Remembrance poppies have been worn in the U.K., Australia and Canada since 1921 and since 1922 in New Zealand.
In the United Kingdom, many don a red poppy on Remembrance Day — a holiday similar to Veterans Day, which also is observed on Nov. 11. There, the British Royal Legion distributes about 45 million remembrance poppies and raises about $64 million annually to assist retired or injured soldiers. The funds support recovery centers, dementia care, medical expenses and even household repairs for veterans.
In 2016, nearly 3.5 million American Legion Auxiliary poppies were distributed, raising $2.1 million for American veterans.
The U.S. Postal Service released a 3-cent stamp in 1948 featuring Michael.
Michael was even featured on a U.S. postage stamp in 1948 — a red 3-cent stamp with her image, name and the title "Founder of Memorial Poppy."
Yet today, she is one of UGA's hidden treasures.
"Most people in Georgia don't know who she is," said Marie Mize, a library associate in the UGA School of Law and a member of the Moina Michael Poppy Project, a group that raises awareness for Michael and sells craft poppies to benefit veterans.
"I knew about her because my parents were both members of the American Legion. My father was a veteran and as a kid, I would go with my mom and we would sell poppies for the American Legion," Mize said. Members of her group crochet and cross-stitch poppies using plastic canvas and paper. They sell them online and at festivals.
"We've been working for three years now to buy an all-terrain wheelchair for a veteran (through the Independence Fund). That's $15,000. That's a lot of $3 and $5 poppies," Mize added.
With the centennial of the armistice approaching, there is renewed interest in remembering Michael and her unyielding dedication to soldiers.
In her hometown of Good Hope, there's a road named after Michael and a corresponding historical marker. Another historical marker denotes her birthplace. Good Hope changed its annual fall festival to the Poppy Festival to honor Michael. The festival features history displays, a bike ride, a Miss Poppy Pageant, and vendors selling items from handmade poppy crafts to poppy T-shirts.
And in downtown Athens, there's a plaque remembering the "poppy lady" across from UGA's historic Arch in the Broad Street median.
"The fact that she was able to accomplish what she did as a woman from Georgia in her day and age was truly remarkable," said James Cobb, B. Phinizy Spalding Professor of History Emeritus at the University of Georgia. "For many Americans, our intervention in World War I quickly became something to forget rather than celebrate. Her actions helped to reaffirm the strength of patriotic sentiment."