2017 SYMPOSIUM - 1917: AMERICA JOINS THE FIGHT
NOVEMBER 3-4, 2017
Early Bird Registration Now Open
The United States emerged from its traditional isolation in 1917 and began to take its place in the forefront of world affairs. As the U.S. mobilized its farms, industries, and formed a large army, it confronted curtailing civil liberties and faced a possible demand for equity in return for support. American leaders believed their choice to join the Entente confirmed a particular form of governance, social, and economic organization, while on the other side of the globe a radically different form was defined by the Russian people. While these competing visions were voiced, the old idea of taking the land of the vanquished was the vision of elite, eyeing the Ottoman Empire.
The Symposium is presented by the National World War I Museum and Memorial and the U.S. World War One Centennial Commission in partnership with the World War One Historical Association and the Command and General Staff College Foundation, Inc. and is sponsored by the Charles Bacon Fund. Special thanks to our presenting sponsors, Bill and Laura Frick.
INDIANA WWI CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE EVENT
To view more photos from the event, please visit the Salvation Army, Indiana Division's photo album: https://www.flickr.com/photos/salvationarmyindiana/sets/72157682214319126
Thursday, April 6, 2017 | Noon - 1 p.m. | Indiana War Memorial, Pershing Auditorium
The United States officially entered World War I on April 6, 1917, a war that changed our state, nation and the world forever. To coincide with the 100th anniversary of the United States entering World War I, the Indiana World War I Centennial Committee hosted a ceremony on April 6, 2017 from noon to 1 p.m. inside Pershing Auditorium at the Indiana War Memorial to commemorate the start of the war.
This event brought Hoosiers together in honor of the United States’ official entry into World War I. The ceremony featured speakers including Indiana Governor Eric Holcomb, Brig. Gen. Ronald A. Westfall, director of Joint Staff, Indiana National Guard and Judge Jim Osborne, vice chair of the Indiana World War I Centennial Committee, president of the Indiana Military Museum. The members of the Indiana World War I Centennial Committee were also introduced to the public.
You can learn more about this commemorative ceremony by visiting Indiana World War I Centennial Kick Off Ceremony.
LOOK UP INDIANA WORLD WAR I VETERANS
Want to look up Indiana World War I veterans? Here is a list of veterans from the Great War courtesy of the Indiana War Memorial and the Gold Star Honor Roll. You can view the list by clicking here.
FEATURED WORLD WAR I STORY
Indiana in World War One
Connor McBride is a graduate student of Public History at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis and intern for the Indiana State Historic Records Advisory Board. He received his B.S. in history from Indiana State University in 2015. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Since there have been Hoosiers, there have been Hoosier willing to serve and sacrifice for their nation and its ideals. The state of Indiana is represented in every major United States war since the state’s founding and as of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of Hoosiers had served their country proudly. By April of 1917, Indiana had demonstrated their willingness and capability to serve and following the United States’ declaration of war, Hoosiers were ready to step up and serve their nation.
Sgt. Alex L Arch of South Bend, soldier who pulled the lanyard to fire the first American shot of World War IIndiana’s soldiers and civilians quickly mobilized for war. Organizations both public and private adapted to meet the demands of war. Many Indiana companies, such as the Studebaker Corporation, placed their factories “at the disposal of the government.”1 In the case of Studebaker, they converted half of their plant capacity to the production of military equipment including artillery and supply chassis and wagons2. The Eli Lilly Pharmaceutical Company offered $25,000 in funding for medical equipment to form Base Hospital 32, which would be comprised primarily of personnel from Indiana3 and would treat almost 9,700 patients in France throughout the war4. Local newspapers and businesses encouraged the citizenry to purchase war bonds, to conserve supplies, and to otherwise support the war effort. Throughout the state, Hoosiers quickly got to work.
Enlisted Hoosiers went overseas with the first units to land on European soil. Among them, Sergeant Alex Arch of South Bend, Indiana was credited with having fired the first shot of the war for the United States, pulling the lanyard to fire the first American artillery shell towards German lines5 6. As well as the first strike, the first blow was received by Indiana as well. The first three American casualties of the war included young Corporal James Gresham of Evansville, Indiana who died in hand to hand combat while repelling a German trench raid near Bathelemont in France7. Hoosiers such as these cemented the state’s legacy as among the first to strike at the enemy and the first to make the ultimate sacrifice for their country.
As the first of the American Expeditionary Forces were arriving in France, the Indiana National Guard was quickly mobilizing. Units from the Indiana and Kentucky National Guards would form the 38th Division and the 84th “Lincoln” Division would be comprised of guard units from Indiana, Kentucky, and Illinois8 9. In addition, the famed 150th artillery regiment, which had gained a fierce reputation in the Civil War under the command of Captain Eli Lilly, was selected as one of the handpicked units to make up the 42nd “Rainbow” Division10. This division would see some of the most intense fighting of the war. The 150th Field Artillery, under the capable leadership of Colonel Robert Tyndall, would take part in six major engagements throughout the war11. The first day of draft registration, June 05, 1917, passed without incident in Indiana. During that first period, over 260,000 Hoosiers came forward to register. Over 400,000 more had registered by the war’s end.12
Throughout the war, Hoosier men and women would time and time again prove their unwavering courage and loyalty to their country in spite of the many faces of adversity. Lieutenant Aaron Fisher of Lyle’s Station, Indiana would become the most highly decorated African American soldier from Indiana during the war for his extraordinary courage and level-headed leadership in the face of overwhelming odds.
Welcome Home Day; Returned Soldiers on parade in Indianapolis
Over 135,000 Hoosiers would serve their country throughout the war. Of this number, more than 3,000 would make the ultimate sacrifice. The countless number of Hoosier soldiers, nurses, and civilians who were there to proudly serve and sacrifice for their nation, deserve more recognition than they have or could receive. They had demonstrated their commitment to the ideals of the United States and proven that, whenever their nation needed them, the men and women of Indiana would be there to answer to answer the call.
1 Albert R. Erskine, History of the Studebaker Corporation, (Chicago, IL: Poole Bros., 1918), 96.
2 Albert R. Erskine, History of the Studebaker Corporation, 80-81.
3 Marie Cecile and Anslem Chomel, A Red Cross Chapter at Work, (Indianapolis, IN: The Hollenbeck Press, 1920), 234-236.
4 Benjamin D. Hitz, A History of Base Hospital 32, 184.
5 “Indiana Sergeant Fired First Shot,” New York Times, 31 Oct. 1917, 1-2.
6 “South Bend is Proud of Hero Who Fired First American Shot Into Kaiser’s Army,” Indianapolis Star, 16 Sep. 1918, 9.
7 “And Then the War Began,” Daily Reporter (Greenfield, IN), Jan. 19, 1922, 4.
8 “Indiana National Guard History,” Indiana National Guard, accessed 11 Jan. 2017, https://www.in.ng.mil/AboutUs/History.aspx.
9 “84th Infantry Division,” United States Center of Military History, accessed 11 Jan. 2017,http://www.history.army.mil/documents/ETO-OB/84ID-ETO.htm.
10 “History & Bibliography of the “Rainbow”,” 42nd Infantry Division, accessed 11 Jan. 2017, http://dmna.ny.gov/arng/42div/?id=history.
11 "In Memory of the 150th Field Artillery, United States Army." document can be found at Indiana Historical Society Library, Collection M280, Robert H Tyndall, "150th Field Artillery – History", Box 1, Folder 3.
12 John J. Newman, “Uncle, We are Ready!”: Registering America’s Fighting Men, 1917-1918, (North Salt Lake, UT: Heritage Quest, 2001).
13 Aaron R. Fisher, letter to Christopher B. Coleman, Indiana Historical Bureau, September 1929
14 Benjamin D. Hitz, A History of Base Hospital 32, 184.
15 “World War I Medal of Honor Recipients: Woodfill, Samuel,” US Army Center of Military History, accessed Jan. 04, 2017,http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/worldwari.html#WOODFILL.
16 "United States Muster Rolls of the Marine Corps, 1798-1937", database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q29J-DSRV: 8 August 2016), Opha M Johnson, 1918.
17 "United States Muster Rolls of the Marine Corps, 1798-1937," database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-998P-VSBV?cc=1916228&wc=SYPZ-7MW%3A1516642801%2C1514707501 : 8 August 2016), 1893-1940 > image 20 of 822; citing NARA microfilm publication T1118 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).