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World War I Centennial News


 

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Ceremonies in Scotland Remember Islay War Dead

via the BBC News

ISLAY -- Commemorations took place on Friday to remember the 700 people who died in two separate World War I disasters off the island of Islay, Scotland.

PRINCESS ROYAL LAYS WREATH WAR MEMORIAL PORT ELLEN ISLAY 04 MAY 2018 1024x683Princess Royal Princess Anne lays a wreath at the war memorial Port Ellen part of the ww100 service to commemorate the sinking of the Tuscana and the Otranto troop ships (Photo by Kevin McGlynn, The Oban Times)Princess Anne of the British Royal Family laid a wreath at a service to mark 100 years since the tragedies, while warships from Britain, America, France and Germany gathered over the wreck of a ship.

More than 200 US soldiers died when the troop ship SS Tuscania was torpedoed by a German U-boat off Islay in February in 1918. Eight months later, another troop ship, the HMS Otranto, went down after a collision in a storm.

A ceremony took place on board Royal Navy patrol boat HMS Raider over the wreck of SS Tuscania.

HMS Raider was joined by warships HMS Montrose, America ship USS Ross, the French FS Andromede and the German FGS Lubeck for the service.

The ships were the backdrop to WW100 Scotland National Day of Remembrance commemorative services being held on the island.

These were attended by Princess Anne, Scottish and UK government ministers, the US and German Ambassadors and American descendents of those who survived these twin tragedies.

Read more: Ceremonies in Scotland Remember Islay War Dead

1525182498328Smithsonian Institution curator Jennifer Jones, and the US flag made by Islay locals is in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC The flag was put together by five Islay townspeoplev - Jessie McLellann, Mary Cunningham, Catherine McGregor, Mary Armour and John McDougall spent hours sewing the stars and stripes, just a few hours ahead of the first funeral for the deceased soldiers, according to The National, a Scottish newspaper.

100-year-old flag made for US soldiers who died during World War I returns to Scottish island 

via the Fox News web site

A 100-year-old flag used in the funeral of U.S. troops on a small Scottish island during World War I is making it back to where it originated from as part of a remembrance of the Great War.

Currently held in the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History in Washington D.C., the flag is making a trek back across the Atlantic to where it was put together, the Scottish island of Islay. It was used in funerals for the more than 200 American soldiers who drowned when the SS Tuscania was hit with a torpedo by a German U-boat.

The ship departed Hoboken, N.J. on Jan. 24 1918, with 384 crewmen and more than 2,000 U.S. Army personnel and was headed for Liverpool. The German U-boat, UB-77, eventually sank the Tuscania on Feb. 5, 1918 when it fired two torpedoes at the ship, causing it to sink in about four hours.

The flag was put together by five people, according to a letter by Hugh Morrison, the Laird of Islay Estate to President Woodrow Wilson. Jessie McLellann, Mary Cunningham, Catherine McGregor, Mary Armour and John McDougall spent hours sewing the stars and stripes, just a few hours ahead of the first funeral for the deceased soldiers, according to The National, a Scottish newspaper.

Read more: 100-year-old flag made for US soldiers who died during World War I returns to Scottish island

Poppies, Flyover Mark WWI Centenary at NC State University 

By Tim Peeler
North Carolina State University

RALEIGH, NC -- North Carolina’s main U.S. World War I Centennial Commission observance – and the only one of 100 worldwide events held on a college campus – took place last week, at the Memorial Tower, NC State’s iconic tribute to its students and alumni who served and died in the war.

HesterU.S. WWI Centennial Commissioner Jerry Hester speaks at a ceremony honoring WWI veterans. May 1, 2018 in Raleigh. (Photo by Shawn Krest, North State Journal)NC State Alumni Association executive director Benny Suggs and Centennial Commissioner Jerry Hester, both military veterans and NC State graduates, were among the speakers at the event, held on the steps of the Belltower.

Read more about bringing this event to NC State.

Also featured were speeches by the University's Army ROTC Battalion Commander Nathan Durrant, retired Associate Chancellor for Student Affairs Tom Stafford, and Chancellor Randy Woodson.

The plaza of the Belltower was decorated by thousands of real and artificial red poppies, the internationally recognized symbol of remembrance, a tradition that sprouted from the John McCrae poem “In Flanders Field.”

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place, and in the sky,
The larks, still bravely singing, fly,
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

The natural flowers were grown by NC State professor Bill Fonteno’s horticulture science class over the course of the spring semester.

Read more: Poppies, Flyover Mark WWI Centenary at North Carolina State University

Centers For Disease Control hosts 1918 Influenza Pandemic Commemoration Activities

By Samantha Mandel
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

This year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is commemorating the 1918 influenza pandemic and the many public health accomplishments that have occurred over the past 100 years.

pandemic flu commemoration image galleryMassachusetts had been drained of physicians and nurses due to calls for military service, and no longer had enough personnel to meet the civilian demand for healthcare during the 1918 flu pandemic. Governor McCall asked every able-bodied person across the state with medical training to offer their aid in fighting the epidemic. Boston Red Cross volunteers assembled gauze influenza masks for use at hard-hit, Camp Devens in Massachusetts.The centenary presents an opportunity to emphasize the continued threat influenza viruses pose, and our vital role in maintaining our nation’s capability to prepare for and respond to an influenza pandemic.

Much of the 1918 flu pandemic can be related to the conditions of WWI. I learned that the U.S. WWI Centennial Commission is also remembering the events of WW1 this year.

Throughout 2018, CDC will highlight 100 years of public health achievements in flu preparedness and response, including future threats and advancements that are needed. Upcoming events include a symposium with Emory University on May 7th, 2018.

The symposium, 100 years of Influenza Pandemics and Practice: 1918-2018 will be a one-day event at the Rollins School of Public Health Auditorium. 100 years after the 1918 pandemic. Info can be found here: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-commemoration/agenda.htm

Experts from academia and government will convene to discuss and debate current pandemic influenza threats, and the future of pandemic preparedness and influenza prevention and control.

The event will be webcast from 8:30 AM – 5:30 PM on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/user/rsphweb

Historical facts and a timeline, plus partner resources and information, can be found at our 1918 commemoration website:
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-commemoration/partner-resources.htm.

 

Who was Alan Seeger, and why did President Macron mention him in his speech before Congress? 

By Nicole Renna
Staff Writer, United States World War One Centennial Commission

Note: During his recent visit to the United States, France's President Emmanuel Macron underlined America's centuries-long history of special partnership, including several specific speech mentions related to World War I. One of the most significant World War I mentions was during his speech before the Joint Session of Congress, at the U.S. Capitol. There, President Macron told the story of Alan Seeger, an American poet who is venerated in France, to include a memorial statue in Paris. Who was Alan Seeger, and why is he such a powerful symbol? We decided to find out, and our Intern Nicole Renna has the story. -- Chris Isleib, Director of Public Affairs, United States World War One Centennial Commission

Alan SeegerAlan SeegerAlan Seeger (22 June 1888 – 4 July 1916), uncle of folk singer Pete Seeger and classmate of T.S. Eliot at Harvard, was an American poet who served in the French Foreign Legion in World War I and died during the Battle of the Somme. Notably, he was quoted by French president Macron in his speech at GWU this April 25, 2018. He is represented by a statue on the monument in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, honoring fallen Americans who fought with France during the Great war, although many Americans might not be aware of his commendable contribution to the American and Allied war effort.

Born in New York City, Seeger’s family moved to Staten Island when he was one, and lived there until he was ten. In 1900, his family moved to Mexico for two years, an experience which influenced the imagery in much of his poetry. At Harvard, he edited and wrote for the Harvard Monthly. After graduating in 1910, he spent two years in Greenwich Village, living as a young bohemian and writing poetry. After moving to the Latin Quarter of Paris to continue this lifestyle, on August 24 1914 Seeger joined the French Foreign Legion so that he could fight for the Allies in WWI. On July 4, 1916, while cheering on his fellow soldiers in a successful charge at Belloy-en-Santerre, he died after several hits by machine gun fire.

Seeger's poetry was published posthumously by Charles Scribner's Sons in December 1916, in a collection of his works entitled Poems, but was objectively unsuccessful, likely due to its idealism and language, which, post-WWI fell largely out of literary fashion. One of his poems, however, called I Have a Rendezvous with Death, which he is best known for, was both a favorite of President John F. Kennedy and the poem which Macron quoted this April in DC. He is memorialized for his bravery and literary vision through memorials like that in Place des États-Unis, famous biographies such like that by Author Chris Dickon, and the naming of a liberty ship “SS Alan Seeger” by the California Shipbuilding Corp. A link to his famous poem can be followed here: https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/i-have-rendezvous-death

Read more: Who was Alan Seeger, and why did President Macron mention him in his speech before Congress?

Liberty CarThe Liberty Car, 1918 Cadillac Officers Car US1257X, was in France for the entire U.S. involvement in the great war, 1917-1919, then made it home and survived 100 years without being touched.

Four Questions for Marc Lassen

Liberty Car "paying tribute to those that served and sacrificed in the Great War"

By Caitlin Hamon
Staff Writer, United States World War One Centennial Commission

From the beginning of the U.S. entry into the war in 1917, approximately 2,000 Cadillacs were sent to France along with the U.S. military forces of the A.E.F. Cadillacs were known at the time as the most durable, fastest, (and finest) cars in the U.S., thus, the Seven-Passenger Touring Cars were a natural choice as the official vehicle for military officers. Marc Lassen is the owner of US1257X, the only surviving intact Officer's Cadillac from WWI. It's a vehicle which has been on a remarkable journey, surviving service with the American Expeditionary Forces in France when many others were lost to time, or disposed of after the War. In addition to its War Record, US1257X also had the prestige of driving the young Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, daughter-in-law to the former President. Mr. Lassen generously agreed to collaborate with the World War 1 Centennial Commission in several events, including the Under Glass display currently available to view on the National Mall. He spoke with us a little about his famous car.

Can you tell us a little about the history of the car? How did you become the owner?

Marc LassenMarc LassenUS1257X is the only known vehicle with a verified war record in the A.E.F., and is one of the first vehicles to land in France, the 257th passenger car registered, to be exact.

I stumbled upon it completely be accident, quite literally. I had a little mishap in a 1929 Cadillac that resulted in my needing a taillight. This is back in 2005. So I’m doing random internet searches for antique Cadillac parts and I saw a very strange ad. 1918 Cadillac.. OD Green.. May have belonged to some General. Well... There’s one you don’t see every day. So I did some quick research and sure enough, the Cadillac was the official car for officers in WWI, and it was only a couple hundred miles away in Spokane.

So I spoke with the old fella that had it, rented a trailer, and headed out to see if this could possibly be legit. The history on the car was long gone by some 70 years, but you never know! So we meet and he opens the shed, and there sat what appeared to be a completely intact, darn original, army green Caddy. I figured even if I couldn’t prove it was an authentic Great War Cadillac it was still a cool old car and worth what he was asking for. We shook hands and trailed it home.

That is when the great odyssey of reconnecting US1257X with it’s incredible historical provenance began. This took thousands of hours and countless dead ends, but eventually I cracked the code, and it was better than anyone could have hoped for; Not only was the car authentic, it was in France for the entire U.S. involvement in the great war, 1917-1919, and it miraculously made it home and survived nearly 100 years without being touched. A perfect survivor.

Fast forward 10 years, and US1257X is being celebrated on the National Mall!! Who knew?? Well I did. I knew it the minute I laid eyes on her. Doing the sleuthing and research that reunited US1257X with its proud military history, in the Great War for Liberty, has been an honor.

Read more: A remarkable World War I Car

The 'Wallace and Grommit' studio creating emotional WWI game 

By Jon Fingas
via engadget .com

LogoGames set in real-world conflicts don't necessarily glorify war, but it's rare that they fully address the horrors of war. For every poignant story like Valiant Hearts, there's many more titles that might only offer token commentary. Wallace & Grommit's Aardman Animation Studios, Bandai Namco and DigixArt want to change that. They've unveiled 11-11: Memories Retold, a narrative adventure about two World War I soldiers who meet under the "most unlikely of circumstances."

Details of the plot and gameplay remain under wraps, but the creators make it clear that it's about the "emotional" human experience, not the fighting. The teaser trailer's use of John McCrae's "In Flanders Fields" is a hint at the sober tone.

Aardman is contributing a distinctive "painted style" where 3D objects look more like they were brushed on to the screen -- it's akin to looking at a painting from the period.

There's no release schedule for 11-11 as of yet, but it's in development for the PS4, Xbox One and PCs (via Steam). Whenever it arrives, it might be worth a close look. The cultural impact of World War I is quickly fading nearly a century after it ended, and many people only really know it through media that focuses primarily on the battles themselves, such as Battlefield 1. This may draw more attention to the cultural impact, and remind us that WWI was supposed to represent an end to all wars.

Read more: The 'Wallace and Grommit' studio is creating an emotional WWI game

Sabin Howard Blog

Visual structure of storytelling in A Soldier's Journey

Note: We are delighted to host a new posting this week by Sabin Howard. Sabin is a renown sculptor who is working with our Centennial Commission to create the new National World War I Memorial in Washington DC. Sabin'S sculpture for the memorial, A SOLDIER'S JOURNEY, is envisioned as a larger-than-life-sized bronze wall, that depicts the personal, yet universal, experience of a soldier who goes off to war. In this post, Sabin talks about composition and story structure, as it applies to this special work of art.  -- Chris Isleib, Director of Public Affairs, United States World War One Centennial Commission

By Sabin Howard

A Soldier's Journey balances a range of opposing feelings and actions in the same epic composition.

It reflects both what is civilized and what is savage about humanity in a story that explains The Great War.

DetailDetail from the Memorial sculptureThe ideals of heroism, family, and caring are juxtapositioned with the violence, terror, and aggression of battle in the WW1 relief sculpture.

The WW1 relief sculpture is uniquely suited to fit within Pershing Park because it is a multifaceted view of humanity and because it goes beyond the traditional glorification of men in battle.

It is a complex story that narrates the full spectrum of human feelings.

Clarity in visual narration has been established through simplicity of design and structure.

The geometry of the structure is laid out in this way with meticulous purpose.

The purpose is to create a universally understood story regardless of age, culture, or society.

Structure of a Story

A Soldier’s Journey is divided into 3 acts; a beginning, a middle, and an end.

Each of these sections is equally divided into beginning, middle, and end.

Each section of the story thus has a start action, a movement or transition in between, and an end or exit action.

The mathematical spacing of the parts is the story and that spacing is critical for the understanding and clarity of the visual narrative.

Sabin with macquetteSabin HowardBecause each section has opposing feelings and actions at each end, a specific distance is needed to bridge the gap. 

The transition between the opposing feelings has to be a certain distance in order to create visual clarity in the story.

Pacing is critical for clarity in telling this story to the Memorial visitor.

The Spacing between these parts is how I have created pacing.

For example, you cannot ram a battle scene into a quiet scene; nor can you lurch from a quiet scene into an energetic scene without the proper transition and spacing.

Parts need to build into each other and flow with the correct rate of energy and speed to maintain harmony of the whole.

Transitions are crucial to all forms of narrative storytelling, whether visual, verbal, or musical.

Read more: Visual structure of storytelling in A Soldier's Journey

Tales from the Trenches: The U.S. National Archives World War I Army Division Records Online

By Suzanne Isaacs
United States National Archives

unnamed 1Last April, the National Archives embarked on a two year commemoration of the United States’ entry into World War I.

We created a World War I Centennial portal which highlights educator and genealogy resources, articles.

We also created a multimedia timeline, events and exhibits, and archival records documenting the U.S. experience in the conflict.

And you helped make these records more accessible through our World War I tagging and transcription missions.

Across the National Archives, archival units prioritized the digitization of Word War I records. The series "Records of Divisions, 1917 - 1920" was recently digitized and added to the Catalog. Within this series, you will find remarkable and moving accounts of war through unit histories, station lists, operations reports, messages, field orders, correspondence, general orders, special orders, bulletins, and memorandums that document the service of each American Expeditionary Forces combat division during its participation in World War I.

These records are the focus of a new transcription mission for our citizen archivists. Take a look and help us transcribe these incredible records! Within this series, you will find remarkable and moving accounts of war through unit histories, station lists, operations reports, messages, field orders, correspondence, general orders, special orders, bulletins, and memorandums that document the service of each American Expeditionary Forces combat division during its participation in World War I.

Read more: Tales from the Trenches: The U.S. National Archives World War I Army Division Records Online

Two WWI nurses gallantly led the way for women in today’s Wisconsin National Guard 

By Capt. Brian Faltinson, USA
Wisconsin National Guard

Two women serving as Army nurses in World War I were part of a long journey resulting in the opportunity for women today to serve in every duty position in the Wisconsin National Guard.

Nurses Irene Robar and Linnie Leckrone treated wounded 32nd Division Soldiers while under artillery fire and became two of the first three women ever awarded the Silver Star Medal.

Irene Robar and Linnie Leckrone 600World War I Army nurses Irene Robar (left) and Linnie Leckrone earned Silver Star Medals for treating wounded 32nd Division Soldiers while under enemy artillery fire. Photos from Answering the Call: The U.S. Army Nurse Corps, 1917-1919 When the United States declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917, the Army Nurse Corps consisted of 403 women. Although part of the Army, nurses at this time held no rank and were addressed as “Miss” or “Nurse.”

To provide proper medical care for the two million Soldiers expected to serve overseas, the Army recruited thousands of nurses from across the nation. Robar and Leckrone, recent graduates from Chicago’s Northwestern University, were two of the 10,000 nurses who served in France with the American Expeditionary Force.

The two roommates volunteered for the Army Nurse Corps in November 1917 and sailed a month later for France with American Red Cross Military Hospital No. 1, which set up in Neufchateau as Base Hospital No. 66. The hospital was modern for the era and living conditions comfortable.

Army doctrine in 1918 stationed female nurses at base hospitals and other facilities well away from the front lines. They were not assigned to mobile field hospitals that followed Army divisions from place to place and were frequently located within enemy artillery range. Medical necessity soon put women in those field hospitals.

“Despite every intention to keep hospitals and women out of harm’s way, the circumstances of war and the practice of medicine brought nurses under the maelstrom of World War I artillery bombardments,” wrote Lt. Col. Richard M. Prior and William S. Marble in a 2008 journal article in Military Medicine.

Read more: Two WWI nurses gallantly led the way for women in today’s Wisconsin National Guard

'The Hello Girls' tells story about Army's first women troops 

By Adam Rogan
via the journaltimes.com web site

RACINE, WI — Not all heroes wear capes. Nor do they all fight with weapons.

The “Hello Girls” fought with skill and cutting edge technology — well, cutting edge for the early 1900s. The Hello Girls were the first women to be sent to war by the U.S. Army, working as telephone switchboard operators and connecting 26 million calls throughout the First World War.

5ae2863f87cf8.imageThis is the most well-known photo of "The Hello Girls," braving the cold outside of their headquarters in Chaumont, France. The Hello Girls were the first women to be sent to war by the U.S. Army, working as telephone switchboard operators and connecting 26 million calls throughout the First World War.However, from when the war officially ended in 1918 until 1977, they weren’t recognized as veterans, despite working side by side with men and oftentimes doing their jobs more efficiently than their males counterpart.

“This is where the women’s service in the military starts as soldiers and not as nurses,” said independent documentarian James Theres, a Racine native and 1982 graduate of Horlick High School, who directed the new documentary “The Hello Girls.”

Hello filmmaking

Theres is an Army veteran who fought in the Persian Gulf War. Now, he works as a speechwriter for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs in Washington, D.C., but makes documentaries on the side.

“I was telling the story of soldiers who came before me,” Theres said. “I found filmmaking to be a unique way to tell stories about history,” he said.

“I wanted to tell stories that are … stuck in the nooks and crannies of history.”

His first documentary film, “The 30th of May,” was released in 2016 and wanted to make another. The Hello Girls seemed like a perfect fit.
Racine native creates award-winning documentary

The Hello Girls were among the first Americans sent to World War I in 1917 and among the last to leave the following year, having stayed to help coordinate the peace talks.

The 223 women worked closely with the all-male U.S. Signal Corps and were vocally praised by General John J. Pershing, the American military leader for whom Pershing Park in Downtown Racine is named.

According to Theres, the Hello Girls could connect a call in about 10 seconds — men in the Signal Corps often took a full minute.

None of the original Hello Girls are still alive today. So, Theres set about contacting family members and those who knew Hello Girls, as well as using archive footage, to tell their story.

Read more: 'The Hello Girls' tells story about Army's first women troops

How World War I Changed Literature 

By Amanda Onion
via the History.com web site

Rupert BrookeRupert Brooke. (Credit: Universal History Archive/Getty Images)World War I, the war that was originally expected to be “over by Christmas,” dragged on for four years with a grim brutality brought on by the dawn of trench warfare and advanced weapons, including chemical weapons. The horrors of that conflict altered the world for decades – and writers reflected that shifted outlook in their work. As Virginia Woolf would later write, “Then suddenly, like a chasm in a smooth road, the war came.”

Early works were romantic sonnets of war and death.

Among the first to document the “chasm” of the war were soldiers themselves. At first, idealism persisted as leaders glorified young soldiers marching off for the good of the country.

English poet Rupert Brooke, after enlisting in Britain’s Royal Navy, wrote a series of patriotic sonnets, including “The Soldier,” which read:

If I should die, think only this of me:
That there’s some corner of a foreign field
That is for ever England.

Brooke, after being deployed in the Allied invasion of Gallipoli, would die of blood poisoning in 1915.

The same year, Canadian doctor Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae, upon seeing how red poppies grew in the fields that had been ravaged by bombs and littered with bodies, wrote “In Flanders Fields.” The poem, memorializing the death of his friend and fellow soldier, would later be used by Allied militaries to recruit soldiers and raise money in selling war bonds:

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place, and in the sky,
The larks, still bravely singing, fly,
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

The tone of literature shifted after years of grueling WWI combat.

While both Brooke’s and McCrae’s works lent patriotic tones to the sacrifices of war early in the conflict, as time wore on, the war’s relentless horrors spawned darker reflections. Some, like English poet Wilfred Owen, saw it their duty to reflect the grim reality of the war in their work.

As Owen would write, “All a poet today can do is warn. That is why the true poet must be truthful.” In “Anthem for the Doomed Youth,” Owen describes soldiers who “die as cattle” and the “monstrous anger of the guns.”

Read more: How World War I Changed Literature

Sergeant Stubby: The dog that fought to liberate France in WWI 

By Stéphanie Trouillard
via the france24.com web site

sergeant stubbyStubby: The most decorated dog in WWI Sergeant Stubby took part in 17 battles, saved his regiment from mustard gas attacks and caught a German spy during World War I. By any standards, Stubby is a hero. But what makes his story all the more extraordinary, is that he was a dog.

Stubby won numerous medals for his bravery, and the heroics of this stray pit-bull have become so famous that his life-story has now been made into an animated Hollywood movie, "Sgt. Stubby: An American Hero".

Stubby became the official mascot of the USA’s 102nd Infantry Regiment after Private J. Robert Conroy found him in July 1917 at Yale University campus where troops were training before being deployed to France. Conroy found he could not part with his four-legged friend and smuggled Stubby in his cloak on the ship bound for Saint-Nazaire in France.

Doggy salute

But Stubby was discovered by Conroy's commanding officer. Stubby promptly charmed the officer by saluting him, as Conroy had trained him to, and the little dog was allowed to stay.

Now in France, the dog faithfully followed his regiment: "There were many cases of animal mascots in the Anglo-Saxon armies, officials generally turned a blind eye,” historian Eric Baratay, author of the book "Beasts in the trenches", told FRANCE 24.

Baptism of fire

The heroic dog entered combat on February 5, 1918, at Chemin des Dames, where he endured shelling day and night for over a month.

On April 20, 1918, the German army launched an offensive in Seicheprey, a village in Meurthe-et-Moselle. Faced with the onslaught, the 102nd Infantry Regiment had a baptism of fire. The fighting was terrible, with more than 650 killed and 100 taken prisoner. Stubby was badly wounded in the foreleg and chest by Germans throwing hand grenades.

Luckily, Stubby recovered and boosted the morale of the wounded. As soon as he was back on four paws, Stubby rapidly returned to the front.

Read more: Sergeant Stubby: The dog that fought to liberate France in WWI

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