To free up resources for the military and for America’s European allies, the government promoted conservation. The Food Administration was led by Herbert Hoover, who had organized relief efforts for Belgium. The agency promoted voluntary measures, such as meatless Mondays and wheatless Wednesdays. It offered canning lessons and modified recipes, and encouraged Americans to plant vegetable gardens in yards and vacant spaces. These measures helped double the amount of food shipped to Europe within a year and reduced U.S. consumption by 15 percent. The Fuel Administration adopted similar efforts, such as heatless Mondays and gasless Sundays.