Spirits of Ohio’s Doughboys
Viquesney Spirit of the American Doughboy Statues across Ohio
By Cyrus Moore III, Ohio WWI Centennial Committee
December 6, 2018
Statues are a common feature of town squares and parks throughout Ohio. Often they are dedicated to local men who served in the Civil War, and feature soldiers, sailors, and depictions of liberty embodied. These statues reached the peak of their popularity in the early 1900s, when Cleveland and other cities erected enormous monuments covered with sculptures and reliefs. By the time the First World War ended such massive memorials were on the decline. In their stead came statues of an individual soldier representing the American fighting spirit. One design epitomizes the First World War statue, E. M. Viquesney’s Spirit of the American Doughboy, and Ohio is fortunate to have as many as fourteen throughout the state.
Viquesney’s statue shows a US infantryman charging through no-mans land in the First World War. In a pose reminiscent of the statue of liberty, he is holding a grenade as he moves forward. The Spirit of the American Doughboy is perhaps the most iconic of First World War statues in the United States. Viquesney sought to portray a soldier in combat—with rifle, bayonet affixed, and the ever-precious gas mask—showing as best he could the realities of war. Viquesney used not one model for his statue, but combined the features of some fifty veterans to create a composite soldier that represented all of America’s fighting men.
Viquesney came from a family of French lineage who had been stone carvers since the early 1800s at least. Born in 1876, Ernest Moore Viquesney, known as “Dick,” grew up in Spencer, Indiana, where he learned to carve stone. After serving in the Spanish-American War, Viquesney moved around the country, but spent the years between 1905 and 1922 in Americus, Georgia, before returning to Indiana. It was in Americus that he created Spirit of the American Doughboy.
Akron, Crooksville, Fostoria, Gallipolis, Marion, Newark, New Philadelphia, Swanton, Woodville, Zanesville all have statues that bear Viquesney’s name. St. Bernard in Cincinnati has a statue with the name of Viquesney’s business partner Walter Rylander. Blue Ash in Cincinnati and Warren both have copies made from Viquesney’s molds but by different foundries.
Viquesney Doughboy Statue in Newark, Ohio
Ohio’s Viquesney Doughboy statues began with Crooksville in 1922 (according to researchers Earl Goldsmith and Les Kopel). Many were dedicated in the late 1920s and early 1930s, and the last came in 1941 when the town of Warren dedicated its statue. Though anyone could purchase a Viquesney Doughboy, many were purchased by veteran organizations, like American Legion posts (New Philadelphia, Woodville), Auxiliaries (Gallipolis), and even the Veterans of Foreign Wars (Newark). Naturally, dedications usually occurred on or near Armistice Day (Akron, Crooksville, Fostoria, Marion, and New Philadelphia).
Though iconic, Viquesney’s Doughboy portrayal was not the first. Mere months before Viquesney began marketing his statue, sculptor John Paulding debuted a realistic Doughboy statue, Over the Top. If not for Viquesney’s aggressive marketing, Pauldings statue—an example of which can be found in Chillicothe—might have become the most iconic Doughboy statue to honor the war. Owing to their similarities, however, Over the Top statues are often confused for and referred to incorrectly as a The Spirit of the American Doughboy.
When you are traveling through Ohio, admiring its many historic monuments and statues, keep an eye out for Spirit of the American Doughboy.
Doughboy Viquesney Statue in Gallipolis, Ohio
This article borrows heavily from the excellent work found on the E.M. Viquesney Doughboy Database by Earl Goldsmith and Les Kopel https://doughboysearcher.weebly.com/
Angels of World War One: Nurses from Washington County, Ohio
November 26, 2018
Ella Kathleen Hoff
In August 1914, the American Red Cross saw the conflict in Europe as a great humanitarian crisis and decided on a mission of neutrality, by providing medical aid to wounded soldiers on both sides of the war. Their plan was to ship medical personnel and supplies to Europe and then to disperse them in small groups to areas of need. The S.S. Red Cross left New York in September 1914 and headed to Europe. On board were 30 surgeons and 125 Red Cross nurses. The ship also carried 10,000 tons of medical supplies contributed by the American people. On the passenger list of nurses was E.K. Hoff, of Washington County, Ohio
Ella Kathleen Hoff served in a reserve hospital in Vienna, Austria. Ella had attended the Cincinnati Training School for Nurses and was working at the Cincinnati City Hospital when she joined the Red Cross Nursing Service. Ella and several of her coworkers were on the Red Cross mission to Europe. Nurses accepting this medical mission agreed to a 6-month contract and received $60 per month. On arriving in New York, the nurses received uniforms and other items needed for hospital work. The nurses were to wear their uniforms, including their Red Cross badges, on board ship for their protection as “neutrals.” During the voyage, the nurses attended classes taught by the surgeons to prepare them for the work ahead. The classes included the metric system and language instruction. The nurse’s lectures also included appropriate moral conduct. The Red Cross wanted to avoid any appearance of impropriety in the formal cultures of Europe. At various ports in Europe, the medical teams of 3 surgeons and 12 nurses disembarked, destined for France, Germany, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, and Bulgaria. Ella and her team served in Vienna, at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. There these medical teams began treating the wounds, infections, mustard gas burns and emotional injuries—shell shock—of the soldiers. By mid-year 1915, the Red Cross medical teams were called home due to lack of funds to continue the mission, along with the German blockade of Allied ships making it difficult for the Red Cross to send supplies needed by their teams. Ella Hoff is listed on the passenger manifest of the S.S. Frederik VIII. Ella traveled with seven other nurses from Cincinnati on the return trip. Ella had gotten sick while working in Austria and she died of tubercular pneumonia a month after returning home. Her obituary stated, “Nurse Dies a Heroine.”
Ella Kathleen Hoff’s photo included in the WWI Memorial in the Marietta City Hall building
Alice M. Young
After the United States declared war against Germany in April 1917, Red Cross nurses were called to work in training camps. City fathers of Charlotte, North Carolina, successfully lobbied for a camp, which they hoped would bring economic benefits to the city. Planners designed Camp Greene to support about 40,000 troops in training at any given time. However, the Army constructed the camp hastily which, as reported by the Representative from New Hampshire, resulted in very poor living conditions for the soldiers. The report cautioned about these conditions and the potential for infectious disease to flourish. This occurred in 1918 when the Spanish Flu epidemic hit Camp Greene. It was particularly deadly for those who cared for the sick. Washington County Ohio Red Cross Nurse, Alice Young was at Camp Greene in October of 1918.
Alice was born in New Matamoras, Ohio. She died, age 41, of pneumonia in October of 1918 while she was working in the hospital in Camp Greene. On Alice’s grave in New Matamoras, there is an outline of a Red Cross, with “Army Nurse Corporal,” and the Latin phrase, “Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori.” (It is sweet and honorable to die for one’s country). There are two photos of women in the memorial to those from Washington County who served and died during WWI. One is Ella Hoff, and the other is in a white nurse’s uniform is Alice Young.
Alice M. Young's photo in the WWI Memorial in the Marietta City Hall building
During the Great War, 23,822 nurses served with the American Red Cross, and of those, 19,931 were on active duty overseas with the Army, Navy, US Public Health Service, and the Red Cross. One hundred ten nurses died overseas due to illness and 186 died in the U.S. Many of the nurses were awarded medals of honor from Britain, France and other countries, including the United states. In researching the patriotic service of the Red Cross Nurse in the Great War, I found this metal sign that was inspired by the knowledge of the sacrifices made a generation ago by Red Cross Nurses. I think these nurses were truly angels to those they cared for during the Great War.
Conditions of Camp Greene. Speech of Hon. Sherman E. Burroughs of New Hampshire in the House of Representatives, February 22,1918 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918) (http://docsouth.unc.edu/wwi/burroughshs/burroughs.html)
Contributions of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps in World War I (https://e-anca.org/History/Topics-in-ANC-History/Conributions-of-the-US-Army-Nurse-Corps-in-WWI)
Davidson, Henry P., The American Red Cross in the Great War. New York: Macmillan. 1919.
Middleswart, Bell. History of the Washington County, Ohio, Chapter American Red Cross, April 10, 1917- April 10, 1927. Paper presented by request of Women’s Centennial Association and read, in part, before that organization in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Washington County Chapter of the American Red Cross, April 10, 1027).
Sandusky Ohio Daily Register, July 16, 1915, page 3 column 2 “Nurse Dies a Heroine”.
S.S. Red Cross Passenger List 13 September 1914. gjenuick.com/PassengerLista/Hamburg-AmericanLine/Eastbound/1914-09-13-PassengerList-RedCross.html
Belgian citizens remember Ohio Doughboys
Veteran of 37th Division, interred in European cemetery, recently honored in his Ohio hometown along with other natives who died in WWI
Story by Sgt. 1st Class Joshua Mann
Ohio Army National Guard Historian
November 15, 2018
BREMEN, Ohio — Located a little over 4,000 miles east of this Fairfield County village is the Flanders Field American Cemetery in Waregem, Belgium. At this peaceful site rest 368 American dead, including 61 Ohioans, who gave their lives in liberating Belgium during World War I.
In the first row of plot C at Flanders Field American Cemetery lies the remains of Sgt. Willis L. Burnworth of the 145th Infantry, 37th Division, Ohio National Guard. Back in the Grandview Cemetery in Bremen is a stone cross wrapped in red flowers also inscribed with the name of a fallen Soldier: Sgt. Willis L. Burnworth.
Sgt. Willis Burnworth, a member of the 145th Infantry, 37th Division, Ohio National Guard, in a photo circa 1917-18. On Oct. 31, 1918, after successfully leading his platoon in capturing a German machine gun nest near Olsene, Belgium during World War I, Burnworth was killed when a large caliber shell exploded nearby. (Courtesy photo)
One hundred years after his death, nearly 50 people gathered at the Bremen Bethel Church to remember Burnworth and seven other Bremen natives who died during World War I. In the church was Peter Stassen and his wife Collette, two Belgian citizens who adopted the grave of Burnworth in 2014 and served as the driving force behind the ceremony in his hometown.
“Earlier this year I received a letter from Peter asking what Bremen was going to do to remember Sgt. Burnworth this year?” Bremen Mayor Mike Henwood told the audience. “I said I don’t know, but we need to do something.”
Stassen, a retired Belgian army sergeant major, said he and his wife, a retired Belgian navy master chief petty officer, visit the grave about once a month and place flowers at the grave regularly, and always on his birthday and the anniversary of his death.
Retired Belgian army Sgt. Maj. Peter Stassen and his wife Colette stand behind the grave of Sgt. Willis L. Burnworth at Flanders Field American Cemetery Aug. 5, 2018, in Waregem, Belgium. The Stassens adopted Burnworth’s grave through a campaign by the American Legion Flanders Field Post BEO2 adoption program that began in 2014. Burnworth, a member of the 145th Infantry, 37th Division, Ohio National Guard and a native of Bremen, Ohio, was killed on Oct. 31, 1918, near Olsene, Belgium during World War I. (Ohio National Guard photo by Sgt. 1st Class Joshua Mann)
Burnworth was killed on Oct. 31, 1918, near the town of Olsene, Belgium. After successfully leading his platoon in capturing a German machine gun nest, a large caliber shell exploded nearby. The concussion killed Burnworth without placing a single mark on his body, Stassen told those gathered.
In 1919, his body was disinterred from its battlefield grave and the U.S. government gave Burnworth’s parents the option to have his body returned to Ohio or move it to the American Cemetery in Flanders. “His parents wanted his remains to stay in Belgium, as they felt his body would be taken care of,” Stassen said.
When Soldiers from the Ohio Army National Guard’s 37th Infantry Brigade Combat Team visited Belgium this summer to commemorate the centennial of World War I, they were greeted by Stassen and a number of other locals who adopted 37th Division Soldiers and look after their graves. More recently, leaders of the 37th IBCT and the 1st Battalion, 145th Armored Regiment greeted Stassen here in Ohio and placed wreaths on white crosses at Grandview Cemetery to remember the eight Soldiers.
“These Soldiers gave their all for our tomorrow.” Stassen said. “We can live in freedom, but the price was very high. All they would ask is that we should never forget what they gave.”
Command Sgt. Maj. Jeff Schuster, command sergeant major of the 37th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, Ohio Army National Guard, places a shoulder sleeve insignia of the 37th IBCT on a marker for Sgt. Willis Burnworth Nov. 3, 2018, at Grandview Cemetery near Bremen, Ohio. Burnworth, a member of the 145th Infantry, 37th Division, was killed near Olsene, Belgium on Oct. 31, 1918, during World War I. Ohio National Guard Soldiers participated in a ceremony in Bremen to remember the eight Soldiers from that village killed during World War I. (Ohio National Guard photo by Sgt. 1st Class Joshua Mann)
By Megan McCoy
November 7, 2018
Immortal. Hot-headed. Business savvy. Ace of Aces. Eddie Rickenbacker accumulated many adjectives on his way to becoming a larger-than-life legend, but he began with humble beginnings.
Born in Columbus, Ohio, in 1890 to Swiss immigrants, Rickenbacker lived most of his childhood in a home his parents built on the east side of the city. The Rickenbacker family lived a simple life, and seven siblings crowded into the tiny home raising much of their own food on the surrounding land. There was no lack of excitement in young Eddie’s life however, as he quickly became known as a rowdy daredevil child who led a local gang of fellow rebels. Rickenbacker racked up near misses with death and the law despite his father and mother’s strict discipline.
That would all change, however, when Rickenbacker’s father died in 1904. After promising his mother to change his behavior, he quit school to work odd jobs and earn income for his struggling family. Eventually, Rickenbacker would find his way into a local car shop where he would begin by sweeping floors and work his way up to driver. He would go on to race cars for manufacturers and ultimately make a career of it. By the time the United States entered World War I, Rickenbacker was already wealthy and famous as a race car driver.
He had bigger dreams, however, and enlisted in the American Expeditionary Service hoping to serve as a pilot. Unfortunately, due to pilot requirements regarding age and college education, Rickenbacker was not qualified to fly. Instead, he served as a driver for various officers in France. A combination of luck and skill would lead to him driving Billy Mitchell, the commander of the Air Service, and the man who would help him skirt the regulations to become a pilot.
In his autobiography, Rickenbacker reflects on his training for flying – noting that he had an immense fear of heights and a tendency for motion sickness, both elements that made his work training as a pilot more difficult. Nevertheless, Rickenbacker quickly learned the ropes and was commissioned as a lieutenant. Rickenbacker joined the 94th Aero Squadron, better known as the “Hat in the Ring Squadron” as they were the first American unit to fly in combat. His first experiences in aerial combat were harrowing, and Rickenbacker quickly recognized that success in aerial combat would require shrewd intellect and careful calculation. After first flying with hand-me-down French Nieuport 28s that struggled to keep up with German planes, the A.E.F. would upgrade to the more advanced French Spad XIII. Rickenbacker, like other pilots, worked with his mechanics to give his plane distinctive style and modify his plane and guns to better serve his style of combat.
Dated 1917-1918, this photograph shows Eddie Rickenbacker, a fighting ace in the 94th Aero Squadron, sitting in a plane cockpit while stationed in France during World War I
American pilots quickly became locked in a race to the top of the score charts, each one vying for the coveted title of “Ace of Aces”. Rickenbacker received his first confirmed aerial victory in April of 1918. By May of 1918, Rickenbacker had been awarded the Croix de Guerre and achieved “ace” status after getting his 5th confirmed aerial victory.
Though older and with less formal education than many of the other pilots, Rickenbacker made friends with other famous aces like Quentin Roosevelt and Frank Luke. Rickenbacker noted in his autobiography that their deaths, as well as others like Raoul Lufbery, would change his approach to combat making him more circumspect about how he ran future missions to the front, a quality he adamantly tried to instill other pilots who were new to the front.
As American forces pushed north toward Sedan during the Meuse-Argonne offensive, Rickenbacker and his fellow pilots began accumulating aerial victories at a faster rate than ever before. In the fall of 1918, Rickenbacker ascended to command the 94th Aero Squadron and achieved the rank of Captain. Rickenbacker would also be assigned the title “Ace of Aces”, and by the end of the war, he had accumulated more than 24 aerial victories.
The Ohio History Connection preserves a piece of his famous Spad XIII in its collection, stripped from the fuselage by Rickenbacker before leaving France and donated to the museum shortly after the war. The other half was proudly displayed in Rickenbacker’s Eastern Airlines office.
This section of fabric came from the French-made Spad XIII fighter plane that was flown by Captain Edward "Eddie" Rickenbacker. On the right is the Hat in the Ring insignia of the 94th Aero Squadron, one of the first American air squadrons to fight in German territory during World War I.
In the 1930s, Rickenbacker received the U.S. Congressional Medal of Honor for his service in World War I. Rickenbacker would go on to run Eastern Airlines and survive several more brushes with death, including more than 21 days at sea after a plane crash into the Pacific Ocean during a top-secret mission in World War II. Rickenbacker’s business acumen and seeming immortality, alongside his status as the American “Ace of Aces” in World War I, would make Rickenbacker a legend of Ohio history.
Fighting the Flying Circus - Eddie Rickenbacker
Eddie Rickenbacker: An American Hero in the Twentieth Century – W. David Lewis
Eddie Rickenbacker Papers – Auburn University Special Collections and Archives
Buckeye Brigade Soldiers return to France, Belgium
Story by Sgt. First Class Joshua Mann
Ohio Army National Guard Historian
October 23, 2018
MONTFAUCON, France — As the U.S. Army commemorates the centennial of the Meuse-Argonne campaign this week, Soldiers from the 37th Infantry Brigade Combat Team are reflecting on their visit to France and Belgium this past summer to learn about and pay tribute to the 37th Division’s role in World War I.
The eight Buckeye Brigade Soldiers, including Col. Cory Lusk and Command Sgt. Maj. Jeff Schuster, the 37th Infantry Brigade Combat Team’s commander and command sergeant major, joined about 50 other Army National Guard and Army Reserve Soldiers Aug. 3-9 in northern France and Belgium as part of the Army’s Road to Armistice event.
“The history and lineage of the unit is always something that’s stressed to be important. But the specifics of the individual campaigns, the difficulties that these Soldiers faced and the adversities that they overcame were not a reality for me, personally, until I got a chance to visit the battle sites and walk the fields they fought across,” said Staff Sgt. Ryan Davis of Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 37th IBCT.
Staff Sgt. Gregory Morris (left) of Battery B, 1st Battalion, 134th Field Artillery Regiment, 37th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, Ohio Army National Guard, carries the American flag at Flanders Field American Cemetery Aug. 4, 2018, in Waregem, Belgium. Morris, along with other members of the 37th IBCT, conducted a flag raising ceremony at the cemetery’s main flag pole. Army National Guard Soldiers were in France and Belgium Aug. 3-9, taking part in the U.S. Army World War I Centennial Commemoration. (Ohio National Guard photo by Sgt. 1st Class Joshua Mann)
The event began in Belgium, where the Soldiers visited Flanders Field American Cemetery and were asked by the superintendent to conduct the morning flag raising ceremony. From there, the group followed the route the 37th Division traveled in November 1918, which ended in Eyne, Belgium at the Escault (Scheldt) River, where the 37th crossed under fire on Nov. 2. The Soldiers visited the Ohio Bridge, which was built after the war by the Belgians as a tribute to the Buckeye Division’s heroic deeds. The gratitude of the French and Belgians is something Davis said still holds true today.
“They were very excited to have us there. The people that were directly associated with American cemeteries and war memorials specifically, went above and beyond to try and connect with us and just really share with us the significance of all that the allied forces have done for them and how important that is to them still one hundred years later.”
The Soldiers then returned to France, where they were led on a tour of the 37th’s sector in the Meuse-Argonne Campaign by Charles Bowery, executive director of the U.S. Army Center of Military History. While there, the group visited the Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery, which contains a total of 14,246 graves; the largest number of American dead in Europe.
Soldiers from the 37th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, Ohio Army National Guard look at a photograph in a book pointed out by Charles Bowery Jr., executive director of the U.S. Army Center of Military History, Aug. 6, 2018, near Iviory, France. Near this location, 2nd Lt. Albert Baesel of Company B, 148th Infantry, 37th Division, earned the Medal of Honor Sept. 27, 1918. Soldiers from the 37th traveled to France and Belgium Aug. 3-9 as part of the U.S. Army’s World War I Centennial Commemoration. (Ohio National Guard photo by Sgt. 1st Class Joshua Mann)
“The cemetery at the Meuse-Argonne was probably the most impactful because of the volume of graves that are there,” Davis said. “It really made the reality of the loss of human life involved in World War I something that was tangible and comprehensible for me.”
Davis said since returning to his unit he has had greater opportunities to share the impact with fellow Soldiers and relay the importance of wearing the 37th insignia on his uniform.
“For me, the unit patch was more of an organizational identifier, it was an administrative embellishment on my uniform. After that trip it’s a source of pride. To look down and to know what was accomplished in World War I and to know the history, to know the sacrifice, to look down on my sleeve and see that, it’s a sense of pride, it’s a sense of belonging. It’s something to be proud of.”
The 325th Field Signal Battalion:
Elite African American World War I Soldiers
By Paul LaRue, Ohio WWI Centennial Commemoration Committee
October 2, 2018
Nearly 400,000 African Americans served in World War I. One of the elite groups of African American Soldiers was the 325th Field Signal Battalion. Organized at Camp Sherman in Chillicothe, Ohio, the Battalion was composed of men from 35 states and the District of Columbia. Ohio was well represented, though Georgia had the most soldiers in the Battalion. Other states supplying significant numbers of men to the 325th included: Massachusetts, Texas, New York, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia. The 325th was considered to be one of the best educated battalions in the Army. Many soldiers in the 325th were graduates of the nation's best colleges and universities. On June 10, 1918, four hundred and forty-four members of the 325th sailed from Hoboken, New Jersey on the U.S. Navy Transport (U.S.N.T.) Orizaba for France.
Panoramic photo of men belonging to the 325th Field Signal Battalion at Camp Sherman. In front of the group, semaphore flags are arranged to look like the Signal Corps emblem above a Cam Sherman pennant. Ohio Memory World War I Collection.
The Signal Corps was responsible for creating and maintaining communications for the Army. Advances in technology had created new communication methods such as the telephone, radio, and aerial mapping, but the Signal Corps still depended on traditional communication methods such as carrier pigeons and semaphore flags. The Field Signal Corps maintained communications between the front lines and the division headquarters. The 325th Field Signal Battalion was part of the 92nd Division. The 325th was divided into three companies: Co. A was the radio company, Co. B was the wire company, and Co. C was the outpost company. Collectively, the three companies worked to create and maintain lines of communication. Often this meant operating under enemy fire. The 325th functioned efficiently and bravely. By the end of the war, the 325th was the recipient of General Order Number 38 from Colonel Allen J. Greer, recognizing the exceptional bravery of two soldiers from the 325th.
Ohio's role in the 325th Field Signal Battalion was highlighted to me as I was researching this exceptional group of soldiers. I initially came across the name of Corporal Earl Belsinger, Co. A, 325th Field Signal Battalion, while researching World War I veterans buried in the Union Baptist Cemetery in Cincinnati. This piqued my curiosity about the names of other Ohioans that served in the 325th. A friend of mine, who is a much better genealogist than am I, showed me the records of the names of the men from 325th being transported on the Orizaba. This record listed the names and addresses of the men in the battalion. It was a pleasant surprise to read the name of Private John H. Burns, Co. C, from my hometown of Washington Court House, Ohio. I guess this reinforces the message that these forgotten heroes are literally in our own backyard! I hope the World War I Centennial encourages you to see what connections are in your community. The Ohio History Connection has just released a lesson plan on World War I and technology that includes information on the 325th Field Signal Battalion.
Grave marker of John Burns, who served with the 325th Field Signal Battalion
Sources used for this post
1.) Circuits of Victory by A. Lincoln Lavine
2.) Getting the Message Through by Rebecca Robbins Raines
3.) The American Negro in the World War by Emmett J. Scott
The Camp Sherman News: January 10, 1919
1.) Passenger list USNT Orizaba June 9, 1918
2.) Washington Cemetery Records (email to/from Cemetery Supt.)
3.) The Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines in the World War 1917 - 1918 (various volumes)
More Little Stories of the Great War
By Kristen Newby, Projects Coordinator, Ohio History Connection
September 13, 2018
When’s the last time you visited the World War I in Ohio Digital Collection on Ohio Memory to view recently added material? Through our Little Stories of the Great War project, generously funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), the Ohio History Connection is digitizing World War I collections from our archives as well as other cultural heritage institutions across the state! With the Armistice Day Anniversary quickly approaching, we invite you to visit Ohio Memory to learn more about the many ways Ohioans supported the national war effort.
Herve W. Miner ID card: Captain Herve W. Miner’s A.E.F. identification card includes his name, rank, and unit, along with his photograph. Courtesy of the Ohio History Connection. Via Ohio Memory.
Ohio native Herve W. Miner returned to the Buckeye State after his World War I service in Company C of the 146th Infantry Regiment, 37th Division. Miner was commissioned as a captain on July 7, 1917, and along with the rest of the 146th Infantry, trained at Camp Sheridan (Alabama) and Fort Dix (New Jersey) before sailing for France in June 1918. In France, the 146th Infantry saw combat in the Ypres-Lys, St. Michiel, and Meuse-Argonne offensives, and Miner was honorably discharged on May 1, 1919, as a Major. Before and after the war, Miner worked for the Canton Daily News in various editorial positions and in 1929 was promoted to publisher and general manager. When owner and former Ohio Governor James M. Cox sold the paper in 1930, Miner accepted a position with The Public Ledger in Philadelphia. In addition to his identification card, the Herve W. Miner Papers includes Miner’s Second Liberty Loan allotment form, proficiency certificate in field engineering, his honorable discharge, and combat instructions.
This photograph shows employees installing engines on DH-4 planes in the Fuselage Department at Dayton-Wright Airplane Company.
When many people think of Ohio history, we often look back to the Wright Brothers and Dayton, Ohio, where technological advancements were developed that would change the scope of travel and transportation for the world. Considering this, it might come as no surprise that Ohio played an important role in manufacturing aircraft during World War I. A group of Ohio businessmen, including Charles Kettering and Edward Deeds, founded the Dayton-Wright Airplane Company after the United States officially joined the war in 1917. Although the company’s name is misleading, Orville Wright did not have any direct connection to the company, but is included in the name to connect the company to Dayton’s aviation history. The Dayton factory was housed in the Wright Brothers’ old facilities, although the main factory was located in Moraine, Ohio, with another factory in Miamisburg. The federal government contracted work to Dayton-Wright to build DH-4 planes, an obsolete British observation plane. Although employees at the Dayton campus produced more than 4,500 planes, most of these were finished in mid-1918 and were not shipped overseas in time for use during the war. To learn more about aviation in Ohio during World War I, examine issues of The Flier or Aviation Weekly, newsletters produced for men training at Wilbur Wright and McCook Fields; pilot Major Doyen P. Wardwell’s uniform, equipment, photographs, and medals; this panoramic photograph of U.S. Signal Corps aviation mechanics in training at Rankin Technical College in St. Louis, Missouri; or the Eddie Rickenbacker Photograph Collection.
Check back with us soon to discover more little stories of the Great War!
Ohio's Harlem Hellfighters and Black Devils
By Paul LaRue, Ohio WWI Centennial Commemoration Committee
September 4, 2018
The grave of Harlem Hellfighter Jim Hughett in France. Photo courtesy of Aurelie Kieffer, ABMC.
The most well-known African American World War I combat regiments are the famed Harlem Hellfighters and Black Devils. These regiments were largely built from New York and Illinois National Guard Units. The 369 was nicknamed the Harlem Hellfighters, and the 370 was nicknamed the Black Devils. What you probably don't know is that Ohioans served in both of these regiments. Not only did Ohioans serve; several made the ultimate sacrifice in combat.
Ohio had its own African American National Guard unit that served as the foundation for the 372, also a decorated combat regiment. The majority of the 8500 African American Ohioans served in labor regiments; however, institutional racism barred advancement in the Army for these men. The French Army was much more progressive and accepting of African American Troops. This attitude, plus the incredible need for manpower, created opportunities for African American Ohio Soldiers.
The 317 Engineers was an African American regiment which organized and trained at Camp Sherman (Chillicothe, Ohio). In France, the majority of the work by the 317 included repairing roads, building trenches, etc., yet several soldiers from the 317 served in the Harlem Hellfighters. Ludlow Luther, born in Glendale (Ohio), served in the 317 Engineers, Co. C, until he was transferred to the 369 as a Wagoner. Private Luther was killed in action July 15, 1918. His body was returned to Ohio and buried in Beech Grove Cemetery (greater Cincinnati).
George Scott, like Private Luther, was from Cincinnati and began his service in the 317 Engineers Co. C, before being transferred to the 369, Co. I. Private Scott died of wounds from combat October 1,1918. Private Scott was buried in the Union Baptist Cemetery in Cincinnati.
Jim Hughett was born in Tyler, Texas, and would later move to Columbus, Ohio. Hughett began his service in the 317 Engineers Co. E before being transferred to the 369 Co. H. Private Hughett was killed in action September 26, 1918. Private Hughett is buried in the Meuse Argonne American Cemetery. Other Ohioans also served in the 369. Privates Luther, Scott and Hughett made the ultimate sacrifice for their country in the most decorated African American regiment, the Harlem Hellfighters.
The grave of Frank Williams in France. Photo courtesy of Hubert Caloud, ABMC.
The 370, known as the Black Devils, had the most African American officers of any U.S. African American combat regiment. Many African American WWI Officers were dismissed or demoted before reaching France. Several Ohioans served in the 370. Frank Williams, born in Piqua, served in the 370. Private Williams was killed in action September 28, 1918. Private Williams was buried in the Oise - Aisne American Cemetery in France.
Lieutenant Charles C. Jackson was born in Rendville, Ohio, an important African American coal mining town. Lt. Jackson's parents moved their young family to Akron. Charles Jackson went through basic training at Camp Sherman. While at Camp Sherman, Jackson was identified for his leadership skills and would be one of only three African American Officers to come out of Camp Sherman. Most African American WWI Officers were trained at Fort Des Moines. Lt. Jackson would serve as an officer in a combat machine gun company. Lt. Jackson, in a letter printed in the Akron Beacon Journal stated, " ... I had the distinct honor of being on the front lines during the last 20 miles of the drive ...." Lt Jackson was a recipient of the French Croix de Guerre for his bravery in combat. Following the war, Lt. Charles Jackson returned to Akron before moving to Cincinnati to raise his family. He was active in his community and became a life member of the Disabled Veterans of World War I.
The Harlem Hellfighters were the first African American regiment to enter combat in France. They also served for the longest time period in combat and received more commendations than any other African American regiment. The Black Devils helped lead the French and American armies in the last drive of the war. Ohioans proudly served and sacrificed in these famous African American regiments.
Note: If you'd like to learn more about Ohio's African American history, celebrate Ohio's Emancipation Day on September 22 with these resources!
1.) The Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines in the World War 1917 - 1918 (various volumes)
2.) Ohio Graves Registration Cards
3,) ABMC Burial database
4.) Akron Beacon Journal: January 13, 1919
5.) Cincinnati Enquirer: November 28, 1980
6.) The Stars and Stripes: April 4, 1919
Ohio’s Connections to the 322nd Field Artillery
By Cyrus Moore III, Ohio WWI Centennial Committee
August 27, 2018
The story of the 322nd United States Field Artillery Regiment began in the summer of 1917 at Fort Benjamin Harrison, outside of Indianapolis, Indiana. There, as part of the officer training program, future officers trained intensively in all aspects of modern war, including artillery. When the men finished their program in August and commissioned as lieutenants, many were sent to Camp Sherman, outside of Chillicothe, Ohio, where a training camp for Ohioans drafted under the Selective Service Act of 1917 would soon be ready. On September 5, 1917, the first draftees arrived at Camp Sherman.
More and more men arrived at Camp Sherman throughout the Autumn of 1917, filling the ranks of the 322nd Field Artillery and other regiments then taking shape. In Camp Sherman the men, until recently civilians, grew accustomed to military life and learned skills necessary for war. They trained on artillery pieces, learned how to measure trajectory of shots, and practiced firing in the hills south of Chillicothe. By the end of May of 1918, the 322nd Field Artillery was ready to leave for France; by June 4, the entire regiment was on its way.
At Camp Sherman the 322nd had trained with and been part of a single division, the 83rd “Ohio” Division. The division travelled to France as a group, but once in France, General Pershing and the American Expeditionary Force decided to break apart the 83rd. Three infantry regiments were converted to depot regiments and trained replacements for combat divisions. The War Department sent one regiment, the 332nd, to Italy to bolster the Italians in their fight against Austria. The 83rd Engineers and Signal Troops were attached in time to the III Corps and did not serve in a division. The 83rd Division’s artillery brigade, including the 322nd, remained in tact and served their role as combat artillery on the Western Front, though attached to different divisions. When they arrived in July their artillery training continued.
By September of 1918, the 322nd was ready for service on the Western Front. Recently, General Pershing had formed his US divisions into a field army and was preparing to open an offensive, which would be known as the Meuse-Argonne. On September 26, the 322nd Field Artillery, attached to the 32nd Division and in support of the 37th, 79th and 91st Divisions, opened fire on German positions near Montfaucon. The 322nd continued to support divisions around the Montfaucon area as infantry took ground from the Germans. The artillerymen continued until October 3, when they received orders to relocate.
Taken out of action only temporarily to rest and resupply, the 322nd was soon again fighting on the western Front in support of US troops advancing in the Meuse-Argonne. Though each US division had on paper its own artillery brigade, in practice artillery was slower to move and resupply, and was often detached from the infantry. The 322nd was able to fight in support of many divisions during the Meuse-Argonne, including at times the 37th “Buckeye” Division, which consisted of Ohio National Guard soldiers. By the end of October, the 322nd found itself again attached to and supporting the 32nd Division. It served with the 32nd until the Armistice went into effect on November 11, 1918.
The Imperial German Army laid down its weapons on November 11, 1918. The soldiers, disarmed, demobilized and returned to their homes. A formal treaty ending the war was still a long way off, however. The War Department thus created the US Third Army to continue to serve in Europe and keep the Germans from re-entering the war before they signed a peace treaty. The Third Army became the US Army of Occupation and entered Germany in December of 1918, then quickly went into garrison in and around the city of Koblenz.
The 322nd Field Artillery, still nominally attached to the 32nd Division, became part of the Army of Occupation. Batteries of the regiment were stationed in small towns that surrounded Koblenz. The men wintered in Germany, taking the opportunity to visit sites and capture pictures of the countryside. Spirits were high among the victorious soldiers, but as Spring approached the men yearned to return to the United States. Facing pressure from congress to demobilize, and with the Treaty of Versailles under negotiation, the War Department began bringing US regiments home. The Army of Occupation dwindled to a token force of a few hundred by the summer of 1919.
The return journey for the 322nd Field Artillery began in March of 1919. The 322nd’s brigade was detached from the 32nd Division (which caused the men to give their brigade the nickname “The Lost Brigade” as they never seemed to have a permanent home with any division during their time in Europe) and, though quickly reattached, in April the brigade boarded trains destined for French ports. After an uneventful crossing, the men disembarked in New Jersey and continued to Camp Sherman. On May 27, 1919, after training, traveling to France, fighting on the Western Front, and occupying Germany all in the span of less than two years, the men of the 322nd received their Honorable Discharges and returned to civilian life.
Taken mostly from:
History of the 322nd Field Artillery. Yale University Press. New Haven, Connecticut. 1920.
“The time has come for Art to do its bit in our war:”
The Art Academy of Cincinnati During the Great War
By Kristen Newby, WW Project Coordinator, Ohio History Connection
July 31, 2018
As part of the Little Stories of the Great War: Ohioans in World War I project, a two-year grant funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Ohio History Connection has digitized archival collections from the Cincinnati Art Museum relating to the Art Academy of Cincinnati’s role in World War I, and the many ways its students supported the war effort on the home front and abroad. These archival collections include letters, postcards, and photographs from former students while stationed at training camps or serving overseas; submissions for a patriotic poster competition and national call for posters; and correspondence between the Academy’s director and various organizations seeking wartime publicity materials.
Charles Schlapp, a former Academy student, sent this photographic postcard to the Academy while he was training at Camp John Wise in San Antonio, Texas. All images courtesy of the Cincinnati Art Museum via Ohio. Memory.
After the United States joined World War I, nearly all of the Academy’s male students enlisted and many museum staff either enlisted or left their positions to pursue other war work. Many women at the Academy withdrew as well, taking on factory jobs. Remaining students made surgical dressings, knit sweaters and socks, and were able to put their more specialized skills to use by painting topographical maps, technical pieces, large landscapes for use as range-finding targets at artillery training schools, and perhaps most importantly, war posters.
Joseph H. Gest, director of the Academy and the Cincinnati Art Museum, maintained regular correspondence with Oliver Dennett Grover from the Division of Pictorial Publicity of the Committee on Public Information. As the chairman of the Middle West, and a well-established painter and art instructor himself, Grover asked Gest to recruit artists from Cincinnati and the surrounding areas to contribute to the national call for war posters. The U.S. Government charged the Division of Pictorial Publicity with recruiting artists to design posters that promoted patriotism and encouraged Americans to support the war effort in a variety of ways, including conserving food and fuel, purchasing war bonds, growing produce in war gardens, and volunteering with organizations like the Red Cross and Knights of Columbus.
• This poster was submitted by a student in the Cincinnati area to the national poster competition for war savings stamps.
In addition to the national call for posters, the War Savings Committee and the American Institute of Graphic Arts hosted a national poster competition to secure the best advertisements for the 1918 war savings stamps campaign. Artists were encouraged to highlight in their designs themes like the importance of thrift, thrift as a patriotic duty, and financing the war. The competition was open to students in grades 7-12, as well as art school students at the college level. Archival collections documenting the competition and Ohio’s participation include the competition rules and guidelines, correspondence between Gest and the Ohio War Savings Committee and other competition spokespeople, entry tickets, and black-and-white photographs of poster submissions from students in the Cincinnati area.
• This headline from a flier distributed by the Art War Relief Committee calls artists to submit war poster designs.
In a letter to Gest, the chairman of the Ohio War Savings Committee writes “The time has come for Art to do its bit in our war and the Public Schools of Ohio are truly now in the service.” Language like this emphasized the importance of fulfilling one’s patriotic duty and reminds us that Americans in every trade could share their talents and expertise to support the war, beyond serving in the more traditional sense as a soldier.
Visit the World War I Collection on Ohio Memory soon to learn more about Ohio’s role as we continue to add more little stories of the Great War!
Ohio at Belleau Wood June 1918
By John Haas, Manuscript Curator, Ohio History Connection
July 24, 2018
One hundred years ago the Battle of Belleau Wood took place in France. Why were Ohio men there? How many were there and what did they do? What happened at Belleau Wood and what was the result? Where is Belleau Wood located in France?
Belleau Wood is near the town of Chateau-Thierry on the Marne River about 40 miles east of Paris. In May of 1918 the German Army launched the third in a series of massive offensives to try and crush the allies and end the war before fresh American forces could reinforce the tired French and British Armies.
How were the Germans able to carry out extensive offensive operations after three and a half years of brutal warfare? The Germans had ended their operations on the Eastern Front against Russia. The Czar had been overthrown and the revolutionary governments were in chaos. Eventually the Bolsheviks took power and sought peace at any price. This freed up hundreds of thousands of German troops that could be sent to the Western Front.
In the spring of 1918 the first two offensives hammered the British Armies in Belgium and Northern France and the third offensive broke through the French Army along the Aisne River and reached the Marne River and was threatening Paris. Thousands fled Paris, the government planned to move to Bordeaux, and the French Army seemed near collapse. (See map below)
American troops were rushed to the front and plugged the gap along the Marne River on either side of the town of Chateau-Thierry including the sector near Belleau Wood. That area was assigned to the 2nd U.S. Infantry Division. The 3rd U.S. Infantry Division, commanded by Ohioan Maj. Gen. Joseph Dickman, was on their left, and earned their nickname, “The Rock of the Marne”, at this time.
The 2nd Division contained an interesting unit, a non U. S. Army unit. Its 4th Infantry Brigade was composed of the 5th and 6th Regiments and 6th Machine Gun Battalion of United States Marines! The other combat formations in the 2nd Division included the 9th and 23rd U.S. Army Infantry Regiments, the 12th, 17th, and 15th Field Artillery Regiments, the 2nd Engineers and many other supporting units. From May 30th to June 5th the 2nd Division and its Marines defended the Marne River-Chateau-Thierry sector against German assaults and stopped them cold and ended their third offensive.
Map credit: West Point Atlas of World War I
The Ohio Connection to Belleau Wood
There are dozens of excellent accounts of the intense fighting in and around Belleau Wood: Hill 142, the wheat field, Bois de Belleau, Bouresches, Vaux, and Chateau-Thierry. Many of these accounts can be found just by searching the internet but for more in-depth accounts see: Through the Wheat: The U.S. Marines in World War I. by Edwin H. Simmons and Joseph H. Alexander, Naval Institute Press, 2008.
When the US entered World War I the United States Marine Corps contained about 14,000 Officers and enlisted men. During the War the Marine Corps enlisted about 57,144 new officers and recruits and created many new units. Among these new recruits were 4,968 Ohio men, second only to New York with 6,782. Following Ohio was Illinois with 4,959 and Pennsylvania with 4,365. And among the new units were the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments and the 6th Marine Machine Gun Battalion who fought at Belleau Wood.
Map credit: A Brief History of the 6th Marines, by Lt. Gen. William K. Jones, USMC (Retired), Washington D.C., 1987.
The Numbers at Belleau Wood
During the month of June 1918 the 2nd Division suffered 1,811 battle deaths and of those 1,062 were Marines, and about 90 of those were Ohio men. The 2nd Division suffered 7,252 additional casualties, of which 3,615 were Marines. Consequently about 350 or more of those additional casualties would have been Ohio men. When they entered the Battle of Belleau Wood the three Marine units in the 2nd Division numbered about 9,000 men. As you can see from the numbers above they suffered 4,677 casualties in that battle.
There are several sources that list the names of the Ohio men who served in the Marines during World War I. Volume 22 of the Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines in the World War 1917-1918 lists the names of all the Ohioans that served as Marines in the war. Volume 23 of the above source, pages 904-934, contains List of Burial Places of Those Whose Bodies Remained in France.
Volume 1, History of Ohio, by Charles B. Galbreath, pages 669-708, lists the names of all 6,777 Ohioans who died in the war. It is arranged by county and branch of service. Pages 669-704 are Army, pages 704-706 are Marines, pages 706-708 Navy and page 708 Army Nurse Corps.
Ohio Losses by County and Day
The worst day for Ohio at the Battle of Belleau Wood was June 6th. Ohio suffered 24 fatalities that day, followed by June 8th and 13th with 7 on each of those days. On June 12th Ohio lost 6 men, followed by June 3rd, 7th, 11th and 15th with 5 deaths on each of those days. There were only eight days of the month of June 1918 when Ohio suffered no fatalities at Belleau Wood.
Of the large Ohio counties Hamilton and Summit suffered 19 fatalities at Belleau Wood, and Cuyahoga lost 16. Ten Ohio counties suffered only one Marine death during the war and it occurred at Belleau Wood: Clark, Darke, Erie, Fairfield, Medina, Hancock, Noble, Pike, Richland and Wayne.
Other Ohio Connections
A famous book named Through the Wheat, is a novel by Thomas Boyd. Boyd was born in Defiance Ohio on 3 July 1888. He enlisted in May 1917 and served with the 6th Marines at Belleau Wood. According to F. Scott Fitzgerald: “Through the Wheat” is not only the best combatant story of the Great War but also the best war book since the Red Badge of Courage.” Fitzgerald also noted: “At first the very exactitude of the detail makes one expect no more than another piece of reporting, but gradually the thing begins to take on significance.” Boyd wrote: “The whistle blew and the men advanced, stepping out in the open where the risen sun made them hideously conspicuous. The field separating the woods stretched far on either side, and was covered with green-stemmed wheat that reached hip high.”
The Ohio History Connection has the Thomas Boyd manuscript collection among our Archives Library materials.
Legends of Belleau Wood
According to Marine Legend during the attack on the morning of June 6th 1918 heavy fire pinned down one Marine unit and its Gunnery Sergeant Dan Daly said: “Come on you sons of bitches! Do you want to live forever?” According to Gunnery Sergeant Daly what he actually said was: “For Christ’s sake men-Come on! Do you want to live forever?”
Another Belleau Wood incident involved Capt. Lloyd W. Williams, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines. On June 2nd Capt. Williams and his company were taking over positions from the French Army units that were retreating and a French Colonel told him to retreat as well, the Germans were coming. Williams looked coldly at the Frenchman and said: “Retreat, hell! We just got here”. Capt. Williams died of wounds suffered on June 11th. When approached for care by medics he said: “Don’t bother with me. Take care of my good men.” He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.
Immediately after the battle the French Army changed the name of the wood, or bois, from Bois de Belleau to: “Bois de la Brigade de Marine.” All three Marine units were honored with unit Croix de Guerre award from the French Government.
Map credit: A Regiment Like No Other: The 6h Marine Regiment at Belleau Wood, by Lt. Commander J. Wayne Hill, U.S. Navy, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2012. That author got it from: Through the Wheat: The U.S. Marines in World War I. By Edwin H. Simmons and Joseph H. Alexander, Naval Institute Press, 2008.
Map credit: A Brief History of the 6th Marines, by Lt. Gen. William K. Jones, USMC (Retired), Washington D.C., 1987.
A Regiment Like No Other: the 6th Marine Regiment at Belleau Wood, by J. Wayne Hill, 2012, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
A Brief History of the 6th Marines, by Lieut. Gen. William K. Jones, 1987.
The United States Marine Corps in the World War, Major Edwin N. McClellan, 1920.
The American Battlefield Monuments Commission web site lists all the Ohio Marines buried in French cemeteries. There are 27 Ohio Marines that were killed during the Battle of Belleau Wood buried in the Aisne-Marne Cemetery in France.
History of Ohio, Vol. 1, Charles B. Galbreath, 1928. Pages 633 to 710 cover Ohio’s role in World War I.
Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines, In the World War, volumes 22 and 23.
Through the Wheat: The U.S. Marines in World War I. by Edwin H. Simmons and Joseph H. Alexander, Naval Institute Press, 2008.