The physical position of generals in battle has changed to reflect both changing technology and changing attitudes about leadership in war.
Death of a General: Edward Sigerfoos & Leaders in War
By George Schwartz
via the War Room (U.S. Army War College) web site
Stars, I have seen them fall,
but when they drop and die
No star is lost at all
From all the star-sown sky.
-- A.E. Housman, Untitled, More Poems
Only in command of a brigade for an hour, Edward Sigerfoos was wounded by enemy artillery and died 10 days later, apparently not knowing that he had been promoted to Brigadier General. Slightly more than a month after his death, the armistice would end the fighting and his death would become a footnote in the history of the World War I. In a war in which many general officers were derisively considered to be chateau generals, Sigerfoos was the only American general officer killed as a result of enemy action.
World War I was one of history’s most lethal conflicts: over eight million military deaths, and perhaps ten million more civilians. Sigerfoos was just one casualty among so many millions. Yet such statistics can be overwhelming, obscuring how each one of the dead had a name and a story. As we approach the 100th anniversary of the end of the Great War, it is worth considering the story of Edward Sigerfoos’s service and sacrifice.
More significantly, however, the centennial of Sigerfoos’s death also provides an occasion to consider the place of general officers on the modern battlefield, and the consequences of fighting in an environment in which leaders in battle may be no safer than front-line troops. To a Doughboy from the Western Front, the headquarters of the brigade and division commanders today may bear a strong resemblance to the chateaus on a century ago.
Yet war is changing. With pervasive sensors and the proliferation of long-range, precision strike weapons, modern commanders may once again find themselves vulnerable. This raises important questions: Is it necessary for Generals to be on the modern battlefield? Is it worth the risk?
An Ohio native, Sigerfoos attended the Ohio State University where he demonstrated exceptional potential in what is now the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC). Consequently, upon graduation in 1891, he received a rare Regular Army commission and became an Infantry officer. He gained tremendous operational experience over the following decades: operating as a logistician for General Leonard Wood in Cuba during the Spanish-American War, leading counter-guerilla operations in the Philippines, and serving with the Pancho Villa Expedition. When America entered the First World War, he was in China with the 15th Infantry, but was recalled to the U.S. to join the American Expeditionary Force (AEF).
Even though Sigerfoos spent a significant amount of time “in the line,” he was also something of a soldier-scholar. He was an honor graduate of the Infantry and Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth class of 1895. Ten years later, during his four-year tenure as the commandant of cadets and professor of military science at the University of Minnesota, he would earn two degrees in law. Finally, in 1915, he graduated highest in his class from the U.S. Army War College, and because of his academic prowess, earned an invitation to stay as faculty. His student project paper and two works as an instructor – all three about the Civil War – are in the library in Ridgeway Hall.
Read more: Death of a General: Edward Sigerfoos & Leaders in War
The Doughboy statue in Martinsburg, WV will be refurbished and moved to another location.
Citizens petition to place Doughboy statue in town square
By Breanna Francis
via the Journal newspaper (Martinsburg, WV) web site
MARTINSBURG, WV — Citizens of Berkeley County presented the Martinsburg City Council with a roughly 200-signature petition requesting the World War I Doughboy statue be placed in the town square after its refurbishment instead of in War Memorial Park, where it is set to be placed.
Gena Long, city recorder for the City of Martinsburg, confirmed the city received the citizen-generated petition and entered it into the minutes for the emergency meeting held Tuesday evening, requesting the city keep the statue in downtown despite the statue being owned by Berkeley County.
Marvin Orndoff, the contact for the petition, said it was something he believes in but adamantly declined further comment.
In a post to his Facebook page, Delegate Larry Kump, R- Berkeley/Morgan, said he agreed, “that the state should be moved to the Martinsburg town square.”
As previously reported, Councilperson Elaine Mauck brought the issue of the World War I Doughboy statue before the council last year, sharing that the old courthouse, where the statue currently resides, will be going up for sale or auction, and in doing so, the statue could have potentially gone with the property.
Mauck said the Smithsonian did confirm the Berkeley County Council is the owner and administrator of the statue and has the right to move and refurbish the statue.
Read more: Citizens petition to place Doughboy statue in town square
The World War I Doughboy monument in Martinsburg, WV is seen in November 2015.
Petition asks for World War I monument to be placed in Martinsburg, WV town square
By Matthew Umstead
Via the Herald-Mail newspaper (WV) web site
MARTINSBURG, W.Va. — More than 200 people have signed a petition objecting to a plan to relocate the World War I Doughboy monument to War Memorial Park in Martinsburg, and are instead asking that it be placed in the city's town square.
Six pages listing about 215 signatures were received on March 11 by Martinsburg City Recorder Gena Long's office, according to the city.
Berkeley County plans to move the monument from its current location at 300 W. King St. on the historic Martinsburg post office/federal building property to the park off North Tennessee Avenue.
A U.S. General Services Administration official said March 9 that officials expect to advertise the federal building for public sale in the coming weeks. The agency also indicated that the federal government does not own the monument.
While Army veteran and Martinsburg resident Marvin Orndorff said Tuesday that he helped collect petition signatures since late last year, he added that the monument could possibly remain at the current location if the government would agree to deed the plot of land where the Doughboy sits to the city or county government.
The monument was placed at the current location in the 1920s after city officials refused to allow the statute to be placed at town square, according to historical accounts.
Read more: Petition asks for WWI monument to be placed in Martinsburg, WV square
Why Don't We Celebrate the Doughboys as the 'Greatest Generation'?
By Michael Peck
via The National Interest web site
March 1, 2020 -- Why does the First World War get no respect in America?
After all, it’s been seventy-five years since World War II, and we still praise the “Greatest Generation.” But over 100 years after America’s declaration of war on Germany on April 6, 1917, our nation’s participation in World War I is seldom remembered except for a few old statues on town squares.
Perhaps this has to do with time. Many Americans alive today have parents or grandparents who fought in World War II, and as of 2016, there were still 620,000 of these veterans among us. The last American veteran of World War I passed away in 2011 at age 110, but most (including my grandfather) had long since departed by then.
Or, maybe it has to with with why the war was fought. In the First World War, Johnny went marching off to fight the “evil” Kaiser Wilhelm, and returned home to parades and adulation. But then the doubts set in. Had Germany really posed a threat to the United States, or had innocent America been manipulated by greedy arms manufacturers and British propaganda? Some fifty-three thousand Americans had been killed in action, but were they heroes or just victims, pawns in yet another intra-European conflict?
And then there was the general revulsion aroused by the First World War itself. World War II is remembered as a war of motion, of glorious thrusts by tanks and aircraft and ships. The symbol World War II is blitzkrieg: the symbol of World War I is trench warfare, of dutiful sheep sacrificed on the altar of the machine gun and the barbed wire fence.
Given enough time, the “Great War” might have gone down in history as the “Greatest War.” But just twenty-one years after the armistice was signed in November 1918, the world was again engulfed by global war. And what a war the sequel was! No cartoony Kaiser Bill with spiked helmet and giant mustache. Now there were real villains—real monsters—to battle: Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo. America wasn’t being duped into intervening in a squabble between rival European empires. Now there were real causes to fight for: democracy versus fascism, good versus evil, barbarism versus civilization. Surely the men and women who fought in such a conflict must have been the Greatest Generation?
Yet far from diminishing those who fought in World War I, it only enhances their courage and commitment.
Read more: Why Don't We Celebrate the Doughboys As the 'Greatest Generation'?
Construction work at the site of the new National World War I Memorial in Washington, DC is continuing, with appropriate accommodations to health and safety during the period of COVID-19 management. The photo above is from the live camera view of the site. Click here to view the live camera feed, or watch a time-lapse video of construction progress to date.
National World War I Memorial construction should give us pride
By Tom Rogan
via the Washington Examiner newspaper (DC) web site
The coronavirus has shut down much of the nation, but construction at the National World War I Memorial rumbles on.
WWI Centennial Commission Executive Director Daniel Dayton told the Washington Examiner that "all is progressing normally. There are no delays of any kind. Our construction company, Grunley, has instituted some additional health/safety procedures, including a facility for hand-washing and additional sanitation procedures. There is currently no COVID-19 impact to the project."
As far as it comports with public health needs, this is good news. It means the memorial should be completed in time for its inauguration on Veterans Day in November.
But the memorial is special for its design as well as its mission.
Located just next to the White House at Pershing Park, the memorial is designed by Joseph Weishaar with support from sculptor Sabin Howard. Its title: The Weight of Sacrifice.
Just 25 years old when he was selected as the design winner in January 2016, Weishaar's passion is clear. Thanks to the World War I Centennial Commission's equally passionate public relations director, Chris Isleib, I was fortunate enough to visit the under-construction memorial and talk with Weishaar. His vision is well-defined. Reflecting his own young age, Weishaar's memorial design matches modern technology to tradition. The hope is that children, the elderly, and everyone in between will find equal value in this history. I came away convinced that he's nailed it.
Read more: National World War I Memorial construction should give us pride
Foundations & Legacy: General John J. Pershing
By LTC Kevin M. Upton, USA (Ret)
Reproduced with permission from The Officer Review® magazine, Military Order of the World Wars
To the fresh-faced and somewhat naive cadets at the University of Nebraska, he was “The Loot.” Some 25 years later, he was “The General” to battle-hardened officers of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) at the end of World War I. His vision, initiative, talents and example provided the inspiration behind two time-honored organizations—the Pershing Rifles Group (PRG) and the Military Order of the World Wars (MOWW)—that, respectively, now celebrate their 125th and 100th anniversaries.
John J. Pershing (center) appears with his staff in 1892 at the University of Nebraska. Source: Lincoln JournalIf the fact that these two organizations inspired by the same man are simultaneously celebrating signature anniversaries is not noteworthy enough, the qualities of Pershing’s personality that imparted vision and inspiration to two very disparate groups some 25 years apart is compelling in and of itself. Indeed, hints of World War I’s General Pershing can be seen in 19th century’s Second Lieutenant Pershing.
As a young lieutenant, Pershing inspired the Nebraska cadets to evolve an elite drill unit into what became later known as the Pershing Rifles. Twenty-five years later, the now General Pershing provided the inspiration that led his AEF officers to establish The Military Order of the World War (MOW W) in 1919.
Notably, Pershing showed a knack for making something out of almost nothing. The cadet unit he inherited at Nebraska in 1891 was little more than a rag-tag group of mostly farm boys who endured military drill only because it was mandated for students attending land grant colleges.
On a far grander scale a quarter-century later, Pershing would grow an Army of barely 300,000 (including National Guard) into a force of some two million men while also finding ways to feed and clothe it, train it, and transport it before he could even think of fighting it—which he also did to great success.
[May 20, 1919] General John J. Pershing inspecting troops of the 89th Division at Trier, Germany.Motivation among the Nebraska cadets was lacking. There were no standard uniforms, very little equipment and no provisions for earning an officer’s commission. That wouldn’t come until the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) was established in 1920. Much the same could be said about the nascent American Expeditionary Force.
However, in 1891 in Lincoln, NE, the newly-assigned lieutenant looked resplendent in his immaculately cared-for uniform. He walked ramrod straight, spoke clearly and directly, and barked his drill commands with precision. He led by example.
These qualities turned some heretofore indifferent heads. The lieutenant gradually got his cadets’ attention. They named him “The Loot.”
Read more: Foundations & Legacy: General John J. Pershing
An Alabama teen became America’s first WWI hero
By Kelly Kazek
via the AL.com (Alabama) web site
Homer Givens was 19 years old when he received the title of “America’s first World War I hero,” as well as one of France’s highest honors, the Croix de Guerre. Givens, born in Florence, Ala., also received a Purple Heart and is now honored on the Walk of Honor at Florence’s River Heritage Park.
Givens enlisted in the military just after graduating from Coffee High School in 1916, not long before the U.S. entered the war. According to the Florence-Lauderdale Public Digital Archive: “Homer enlisted in the US Army, sailing for France in June of 1917 as part of the First Infantry Division, ‘the Big Red One,’ led by Gen. John J. Pershing.”
Homer Givens of Florence, Ala., was called America’s first World War I hero. (Photo from Library of Congress)The unassuming, bespectacled young man made an unlikely hero but his actions during a bloody battle with German forces left no doubt about his bravery. On Nov. 1, 1917, Givens and fellow soldiers were attacked while on a reconnaissance mission, according to a 2017 article in the TimesDaily.
A historical marker in Lauderdale County at Seven Points, which was where the Givens home was once located, recounts Homer’s heroic actions: “Following a bloody two-hour battle on November 1, 1917, Corporal Givens stood alone after his comrades had fallen. He then managed to kill three enemy soldiers before being severely wounded by twenty-three pieces of shrapnel.”
The Digital Archives gave more details: “Cpl. Givens’ men started back for the trenches but Cpl. Givens himself didn’t run, instead firing on the Germans, killing three instantly before he himself was hit (some accounts say it was by a German bomb) and rolled back into the large shell crater where he pretended to be dead. The Germans, assuming he was dead, left. Later a squad of American soldiers came out, discovered the wounded Cpl. Givens and carried him to a nearby field hospital.”
Givens spent weeks in a hospital overseas but residents of his hometown couldn’t wait to honor him. The Sunday, April 26, 1918, edition of the Times Daily announced that Red Cross officials would be delivering “the Cross of War (Croix de Guerre) bestowed upon 20-year-old Homer Givens for extraordinary bravery on the battle front in France.”
Read more: How an Alabama teen became America’s first WWI hero
Innovative, team-taught class brings scale of World War I into focus through trip to European battlefields
By Brian Wallheimer
via the University of Notre Dame web site
More than 20 million people were killed and another 20 million or more were injured in World War I, but it’s difficult for Americans today to wrap their minds around just how catastrophic the conflict was. The last survivors have died, the war wasn’t fought on American soil, and it ended more than a century ago.
In visiting sites across Europe, the Notre Dame University class combined conventional battlefield analysis with the collective and individual things people did to understand and come to terms with the war.But a group of Notre Dame students now has more than numbers, texts, or photos to help them understand the devastation.
As part of their Great War and Modern Memory class — an interdisciplinary course designed and team-taught by Robert Norton, a professor of German, and John Deak, an associate professor of history — they traveled to Europe to visit battlefields and World War I memorials along the western front.
The trip was fully funded through an Arts and Letters Teaching Beyond the Classroom grant and support from the Nanovic Institute for European Studies.
“It was an extraordinary opportunity that I hope we can replicate,” Norton said. “I’ve had colleagues at other institutions say, ‘I wish we could do that, but it would be impossible for us.’”
The goal for the class was to combine conventional battlefield analysis with the collective and individual things people did to understand and come to terms with the war, Norton said.
“We wanted the students to physically experience the sites where so many of the important events of the First World War took place because we believe that gives the students an otherwise not possible insight into the nature of the war and how it’s described in literary and scholarly accounts,” he said.
Read more: Innovative, team-taught class brings scale of World War I into focus through trip to European...
The Kimball World War I Memorial in West Virginia was the first memorial dedicated specifically to the African-American soldiers of the First World War.
First Memorial to African-American Veterans of WWI Built in West Virginia
via the Only In Your State (WV) web site
West Virginia’s history is rich and varied, and the World War Memorial in Kimball, West Virginia is a prime example of this. This is a small museum, but it has a significant story share, and it is well worth your time to visit.
At the turn of the 20th century, McDowell County in West Virginia was booming with thriving coal and railroad communities.
Many of the workers for these industries were African-American, and when the United States entered World War 1, a platoon of 1,500 black soldiers from McDowell County signed up for the fight.They served our country with distinction, and many were recognized with special honors for their service.
A memorial dedicated specifically to the African-American soldiers of the First World War (the first memorial of its kind) was designed and built by architect and West Virginia native Hassell Hicks, opening in 1928 in Kimball, McDowell County.
Read more: First Memorial to African-American Veterans of WWI Built in West Virginia
Study Finds WWI Combat Helmet Is A Superior Shield Against Brain Trauma
By David Welna
via the WAMU National Public Radio web site
In the weeks following Iran's Jan. 8 ballistic missile attack on the Ain al-Assad air base in Iraq, 110 American service members deployed there were diagnosed with what has been the signature, albeit invisible, wound of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan: traumatic brain injury caused by concussive blasts from exploding weapons.
Soldiers of the 369th Infantry during World War I wear French "Adrian" helmets and use French-issued rifles and equipment. Even if all of those service members were wearing combat helmets, they and more than 400,000 other U.S. troops diagnosed with TBI over the past two decades lacked equipment that was specifically designed to protect their brains from the blast of shock waves.
That's because ever since the first modern combat helmet came out in 1915, these so-called "brain buckets" have been designed to protect heads not from invisible shock waves, but from shrapnel, bullets and other blunt physical objects.
In fact, a recent study done by a team of Duke University researchers finds that the 105-year-old "Adrian" helmet used by the French army in World War I can provide better blast protection than the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) widely used by the U.S. military.
"That was very surprising, actually," says Joost Op 't Eynde, the Belgian bioengineering doctoral candidate at Duke who led the research project comparing three WWI-vintage helmets with the ACH model. "It was only after the tests that we saw that the modern helmet was not better. And then we saw that, in certain scenarios, the French Adrian helmet had performed better."
Read more: Study Finds WWI Combat Helmet Is A Superior Shield Against Brain Trauma
Our Forgotten Heroes: Why don’t we talk about WWI?
By Jessica Manfre
via the We Are the Mighty web site
During the "Great War", the United States of America lost over 116,000 of her troops in a span of only 19 months. While initially remaining neutral and refusing to enter into World War I when it began in 1914, that changed after repeated attacks on America's ships. In 1917 the U.S. entered into the fray, declaring war against Germany.
It can be argued that without American's force beside the allies, the war wouldn't have ended in victory, but a stalemate. History has documented this impressive and vital piece of our story. So why don't we talk about it and those incredible heroes that turned the tide for an entire world in the name of democracy?
Why don't we discuss how more Marines were killed or wounded in the battle of Belleau Wood than their service's entire history at that point? That battle alone claimed over 10,000 American casualties in just three weeks. It should also be known that France refused to enter into this particular battle because they felt it was too dangerous. Instead, they insisted that the Americans do it.
We did, but it came at an extremely heavy cost.
In September of 1918, 1.2 million American troops entered into the deadliest battle in its history. Many were undertrained and not yet battle-tested – but their sheer numbers and grit did what other armies could not in four years. It was an incredible offensive effort as the Expeditionary Forces of the United States actually caught Germany completely by surprise with their attack.
America's troops took an area that had been held for four years in just two short days. This battle ended the war, but America lost 26,277 of their own to win it. We also had 192,000 casualties. It was this specific battle at Meuse-Argonne, or The Battle of Argonne Forest, that pushed Germany into literally pleading for an end of World War I. America brought Germany to its knees.
Read more: Our Forgotten Heroes: Why don’t we talk about World War I?
African American officers graduate with World War I commissions, Fort Des Moines, Iowa, 1917
The Legacy of the WW 1 Ft. Des Moines Black Officers Training Camps
By Hal Chase
Special to the United States World War One Centennial Commission web site
African-Americans have struggled for their inalienable rights for the past 400 years of our nation’s history as the recent New York Times 1619 Project makes painfully clear. One of the most overlooked and neglected stories of their struggle was embodied by the 2,369 Black men who volunteered for training in the two Black Officers Training Camps at Ft. Des Moines, Iowa from June to November, 1917.
The first camp (BOTC) involved 1,250 candidates who competed for commissions as Captains, 1st and 2nd Lieutenants in the 92nd & 93rd Divisions on the Western Front in France. The second camp (MOTC) involved 119 candidates, most of whom were medical doctors as well as some 14 dentists and 1,000 “ hospital orderlies.”
The BOTC opened June 15,1917 and commissioned 639 officers on October 15, 1917. The MOTC began in July and commissioned 104 doctors/dentists as Captains in November. Black officers had served in the American Revolution through the Spanish-American War, but the World War 1 Ft. Des Moines Black Officers Training Camps were the first in our nation’s history sponsored by our federal government and the officer candidates perceived themselves as the vanguard of their race that would forge a new future.
Read more: The Legacy of the WWI Ft. Des Moines Black Officers Training Camps
Research by Legionnaire Leon Bates led to a state historical marker commemorating the achievements of World War I veteran Maj. Joseph Ward (top left). Photo by Matt Grills
Lt. Col. Joseph H. Ward: Doctor, surgeon, soldier
By Leon E. Bates
via the American Legion web site
Genealogists say the most important thing on a headstone is the dash between the date of birth and date of death, for that dash represents the life lived.
At the top of a gentle rise in Indianapolis’ 550-acre Crown Hill Cemetery is the final resting place of Lt. Col. Joseph H. Ward (1872-1956), an African American surgeon, hospital administrator and World War I veteran. Like most military markers, Ward’s offers few clues to his dash – his many accomplishments, in and out of uniform.
I first came across Ward’s name while doing research before returning to college, and came to appreciate his legacy while doing additional dissertation research. I learned that Ward established and operated a hospital for black patients when they were barred from treatment elsewhere. Digging further, I discovered he was a medical trailblazer and early American Legion member whose achievements – decades before the civil-rights movement – have been largely forgotten.
EARLY YEARS Ward was a first-generation freedman, born near Wilson, N.C., on the same plantation where his mother, Mittie, grew up enslaved. His maternal grandfather, David G. Ward, a physician, owned the plantation. However, his grandfather took no interest in young Joseph or his education.
As a teenager, Ward left North Carolina and lived in the Baltimore-Washington, D.C., area before settling in Indianapolis. There, he lived with and worked for Dr. George Hasty, one of the founders of the Physio-Medical College of Indiana and editor of the Physio-Medical Journal. Hasty saw to it that Ward completed his education – eighth grade, followed by three years at Indianapolis High School (later Shortridge High School, class of 1894) and the Physio-Medical College of Indiana in 1897.
Read more: Lt. Col. Joseph H. Ward: Doctor, surgeon, soldier